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Type of publication: Straipsnis / Article
Author(s): Pečiulis, Žygintas
Title: Politikų įtaka kuriant Lietuvos visuomeninio transliuotojo modelį
Other Title: Formation and political influence of the Lithuanian public broadcasting model
Is part of: Agora, 2015, nr. 3, p. 69-91
Date: 2015
Keywords: Visuomeninis transliuotojas;Lietuvos radijas ir televizija;Public broadcaster;Lithuanian radio and television
Abstract: Lietuvos audiovizualinio transliavimo istorija prasideda XX amžiuje ir skirstytina į keturis etapus: Nepriklausomos Lietuvos radijas (1926–1940), sovietinės Lietuvos radijas ir televizija (1940–1988), Atgimimo laikotarpio (1988–1990) ir atkurtosios Nepriklausomos Lietuvos (nuo 1990 m.) radijas ir televizija. Atkūrus Nepriklausomybę, Lietuvos radijas ir televizija (LRT) buvo reorganizuota, ne kartą keisti jos veiklą reglamentuojantys įstatymai. Perėjimas iš valstybinio totalitarinio į Vakarų demokratijoms būdingą visuomeninio transliuotojo modelį buvo sudėtingas. Siekį tapti nepriklausomai nuo politinės valdžios lydėjo mėginimai daryti įtaką keičiant aukščiausios valdymo institucijos visuomeninės tarybos sudarymo tvarką, įgaliojimus, finansavimo modelius. Šio straipsnio tikslas yra apžvelgti, kaip per atkurtosios Nepriklausomybės dešimtmečius kito Lietuvos įstatymų leidėjų požiūris į visuomeninį transliuotoją.
Audiovisual broadcasting history in Lithuania began in the 20th century. The Lithuanian radio program was launched in 1926, with television appearing in 1957. Lithuanian radio and television history can be divided into four stages: Radio in independent Lithuania (1926–1940), Radio and television in Soviet Lithuania (1940–1988), the Revival period (1988–1990), and Radio and television of the Restored state (since 1990). After the restoration of independence, Lithuania began to develop a Western model of public broadcasting, which is characterized by an independent broadcaster’s management and financing. The Supreme Council-Atkuriamasis Seimas (1990–1992) reorganized the former institution of Soviet propaganda into an independent Lithuanian broadcaster. Lithuanian Radio and television (LRT) has become an institution accountable to the Parliament and is headed by a public authority – the LRT Board. However, significant political influence remains – Board members were delegated for the term of authorisation of the Parliament, thus parliamentarians had exclusive rights in regards to LRT. The 6th Seimas (Parliament) (1992–1996) developed new regulation of the media – the Public Information Act and the LRT statute. The LRT Board was transformed into a Council composed of 13 members (3 were delegated by the President, 4 – by Seimas, 6 members were delegated by public organizations). It was decided to collect a subscription fee and to reduce the amount of advertising, but this idea has not been implemented. The 7th Seimas (1996–2000) changed the formation procedure of the council (all 15 representatives were delegated by public organizations). These changes destabilized LRT’s work. In the beginning of 2000 was decided to return to a mixed constitution of the Council: 4 members appointed by the President for six years, 4 – by Parliament for a four-year term, and 4 – by public organizations for a two-year term. The principle of rotation has been settled (one third of the Council members changes every two years). The 8th Seimas (2000–2004) returned to the idea of the decommercialisation of LRT. The aim was to create a program budgeting system. It was planned that LRT would have to present to the Parliament its financing plan and prove that its programming coincided with the national mission. The 10th Seimas (2008–2012) attempted to radically transform LRT management and that has caused not only local resistance, but also international reverberation. The compliance of the LRT Council members terms and the political calendar was criticized, as was the possibility for institutions to depuose their delegates. The 11th Seimas (2012–2016) created a LRT funding system under which LRT is considered a non-commercial broadcaster (from 2015 there is no more advertising). LRT funding is associated with the previous calendar year‘s Lithuanian budget and excise revenues. Actual legislation of LRT leads to the conclusion that Lithuania perceives the fundamental principles of public broadcasting and understands its value for democracy.
Appears in Collections:Agora 2015, nr. 3

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