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Type of publication: Straipsnis / Article
Author(s): Jastramskis, Deimantas
Title: Politinė sistema ir žiniasklaida : patronų ir klientų sąveika Lietuvoje
Other Title: Political system and media : interaction between patrons and clients in Lithuania
Is part of: Agora, 2012, nr. 1, p. 73-82
Date: 2012
Keywords: Politinė sistema;Žiniasklaidos sistema
Abstract: Straipsnyje nagrinėjama, kokią įtaką nacionalinės žiniasklaidos sistemos formavimuisi turėjo politinės sistemos subjektai. Analizuojamas valstybės institucijų, partijų ir kitų politikos dalyvių santykis su žiniasklaida, netekus tiesioginės žiniasklaidos organizacijų kontrolės ir siekiant žiniasklaidą instrumentalizuoti, naudojant juridinius ir finansinius svertus. Reklamos užsakymų būdu politinės sistemos dalyviai efektyviausiai instrumentalizuoja labiausiai vidinės nuosavybės aspektu koncentruotas žiniasklaidos organizacijas. Straipsnyje teigiama, kad valstybės mokesčių ir darbo santykių reglamentavimo politika yra nenuosekli ir neskatinanti skaidrios, efektyvios žiniasklaidos sistemos veiklos bei kokybiško visuomenės informavimo priemonių turinio kūrimo. Žiniasklaidos savitvarkos sistema per daug biurokratizuota ir veikia neefektyviai. Klientizmo-patronažo požymius turinčioje Lietuvos politinėje sistemoje žiniasklaidos sistemos subjektai taip pat priversti funkcionuoti pagal klientinės elgsenos principus.
The article analyses the influence of the political system of Lithuania on the formation of the country’s system of the mass media. Since 2001 the implementation of the state mass media policy has been coordinated by the Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Lithuania. There is no consistent and clear strategy of the mass media policy. Amendments to the law related to the mass media are adopted chaotically. There are no special regulations on the ownership of the mass media in Lithuania. The passive position of the state is useful for the mass media magnates which have acquired significant public power in relation to the state. In 2009 mass media organizations received financial support amounting to 11.1 million LTL from the state. This amount is twice as much as in 2008. In 2009–2010 Lithuanian public institutions were among the major advertisers in the mass media and the leading advertisers in the press. There is increased financial dependence on the state by the mass media. The influence of the state on the economy and content agenda of the mass media is very significant. Members of parliament have proposed law amendments which envisage the formation of the Board of Public Broadcasting (LRT) after each general election. In this way features of patronage to Lithuanian political system are provided. Direct financial support for public broadcasting from the citizens does not exist. The budget of the LRT depends on political will. A classic case of a clientelistic system can be observed: resources are controlled and distributed by the patrons (politicians who represent the state) for the clients (representatives of the public) in exchange of support and deference. In 2009 a social security tax was imposed on the income of journalists that work under author agreements (for the first time since declaration of the state independence). The state exerted its power on the business of the mass media. In 2009 VAT privilege for the press was slashed. VAT was raised from 5 to 21 per cent. Lithuania is one of three EU countries (with Bulgaria and Slovakia) which do not have VAT privileges for the press. In this way mass media organizations are economically weakened which in turn has a negative impact on quality of their content. There are three self-regulation institutions for the mass media in Lithuania. They are established by the state, and not at the initiative of the mass media. Two of the three self-regulation institutions are accountable to Parliament. The self-regulation system is too bureaucratic and inefficient.
Appears in Collections:Agora 2012, nr. 1

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