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Type of publication: Straipsnis / Article
Author(s): Lileikis, Saulius
Title: Altruizmo prigimtis ir ugdymas
Other Title: Nature and upbringing of altruism
Is part of: Soter : religijos mokslo žurnalas, 2005, nr. 15(43), p. 111-118
Date: 2005
Keywords: Altruism;Nature;Sociobiology;Upbringing;Altruizmas;Prigimtis;Sociobiologija;Ugdymas
Abstract: The definition of human nature usually varies dependently on the certain direction of philosophy. However recently the idea of only biological human nature, as not connected to spiritual, is more intensively elaborated and spirituality as itself especially altruism is discussed as having only biological origin. The results of the researches of the phenomenon of altruism, as bright spiritual manifestation, show that in psychological works, especially in Internet, where the articles of philosophers and ethologists of different directions could be found, the ideas of altruism having sociobiological origin predominate. The discoveries of ethology stimulated the development of sociobiology. This narrow conception of human being as higher type mammal naturally makes worried educators, who derive human spirituality and altruism from transcendental dimension of human nature. The focus on the transcendental dimension orients for giving sense for life and wider prospective of subsistence in the context of present and future existence. Despite the empirical and positivistic anthropological researches usually ignore the transcendental dimension of human nature. From the other point of view the importance and meaning of mission and functions of upbringing is denied by popular public idea about essentiality of the inherent human personality characteristics. The object of the research is the origin of altruism. The aim of the research is to discover how the biological and sociocultural factors of upbringing influence the altruism. The tasks of the research are to analyze sociobiological dimension of altruism and display the links between biological origin of altruism and sociocultural factors of upbringing. The methods of the research are analysis, meta-analysis, comparative analysis, interpretation, and synthesis. Neotomism is the methodological attitude of the research. Neotomistic pedagogics prioritizes the spiritual human origin, highlights spiritual human mission, raises it above the routine by formulating transcendental upbringing aims and gives the basis for the upbringing of altruism.Sociobiological science allows looking deeply into the human nature and moral origins aspects, which can be important for upbringing practice of socially valuable person-altruist. It is recommended to use more adequate concepts in order to differentiate altruism of animals and people.There is an opinion that, generally, the moral does not depend on biology. Although human intellectual skills could be formed during evolution controlled by natural selection, however moral conviction, appetencies, actions are only secondary phenomenon, which rise above the biological level. The origins of the moral norms are socio-cultural, but not biological. The abilities determined by biological origin don’t show moral worth, for example, the ability to speak doesn’t determine the language (speech). It can be concluded, that mentioned above worth is obtained only by upbringing. Moreover, the egoism and delinkvent public behavior could be explained by the biological natural origin. For example, perfectly formed hand as the part of the body was developed for the reason that only ancestry, which could “ jump from one tree to another” the quickest, survived. But it was not predicted by the origin that the person would use his hand to help, for example, to rescue drowning child. It depends on only the personal decision. It is needed to activate, develop, and cherish the natural potential of the altruism. In addition, it is stated that in forming human behavior process, the culture greatly surpasses biology. It is clear that social human evolution is determined by culture in forms and profound of acts of altruism. Although to raise the impulses of empathy, for example, the certain genes are needed. Moreover, biologically inadequate person cannot learn anything. Consequently, the upbringing and the culture are not omnipotent. It is stated that social phenomenon is the culmination of the biological phenomenon. The altruistic human behavior depends on not only genes, but also on the culture gained by upbringing. Naturally, the biological nature of human altruism couldn’t be ignored, but the role of the upbringing for socially worth person should be emphasized critically. It is stated that organic altruism appetence of children will fail if they will not be stimulated. It was concluded that biological nature partially influences the human altruism, however it is conditioned by religious-sociocultural factors of upbringing. It is advisable to handle human altruism only as a result of synthesis of biological nature and religious-sociocultural factors of upbringing. Inherent altruism can be and must be evoked in the child’s personality in family by impressions of kindness, love, self-sacrifice, together with acts of cruelty and unfairness from reading books, watching movies, talking with important person. This goes together with immanent purpose of upbringing and humanistic conception of religious pedagogics, which orients to stimulate inherent forces of human personality and freely develop them on basis of Christian values.
Vadovaujantis teistine filosofija žmogaus altruistiškumo ugdymui atramos ieškoma transcendentinėje žmogaus prigimties dimensijoje. Tačiau empiriniai bei pozityvistiniai antropologiniai tyrimai paprastai transcendentinę žmogaus prigimties dimensiją ignoruoja. Straipsnyje tiriama altruizmo prigimtis, analizuojama sociobiologinė altruizmo dimensija, atskleidžiamas biologinės altruizmo prigimties bei religinių-sociokultūrinių ugdymo veiksnių ryšys.
Appears in Collections:SOTER: religijos mokslo žurnalas / SOTER: Journal of Religious Science 2005, nr. 15(43)

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