|Abstract: ||Poland. The organists of Krakow trying to improve the situation of church singing in 1904 published the collection of liturgical chants adapted to the 4 - voice mixed choir, the book of choir chants. There are reasons to believe that it was a precursor of J. Naujalis book of chants. Both books tried to achieve the same aims, moreover, were a lot of Polish chants, also taken from Krakow collection in J. Naujalis’ book. The role of „Lithuanian book or chants” in reforming the singing in Lithuanian churches was especially important and multime-aning full.
The main aim the book, as J. Naujalis himself pointed out, was an attempt to improve the existing situation of singing in churches. At that time the same main liturgical chants in churches were sung differently, distorting their melodies and words. The level of their performance was also low. It happened for the reason that in Lithuania, which was enslaved by tsarist Russian empire there were no possibilities for organists to learn their trade, moreover there were no the most necessary Lithuanian book of chants published. Prepared y J. Naujalis and published on his own initiative „Lithuanian book of chants” was supposed to compensate these gaps. What concerns music teaching aspect, the book of chants became a real ABC book of artistic methodics of choirs as well as of the organists’ self education. Lithuanian organists of the beginning of the XX th century being very little literate had a possibility to learn the basics of playing the organ and harmony knowledge from this book as well the basis of choir conducting methodics, which were presented by J. Naujalis in the Preface.
What concerns the aspect of religious practice, the book of chants presented the organists the systemized most necessary repertoire of liturgical singing. Latin hymns and antiphons the singing of which met the recommendations of Motu proprio, as well as the chants o the biggest feasts, Sunday service and other ritual chants.
The church music reform of the beginning of the XX th century coincided with the national rebirth and massive movement of choirs. After the cancelling of the press ban in 1904 till the World war I so called Lithuanian evening - parties spread in which amateur artists gave a drama performance, after that the choir sang a few songs. These choirs were usually of the local church prepared for the evening party by the organist or arising national music intellectuals, that is music students who had holidays. The problematic situation of singing in churches was that in absolutely most churches choirs sang in Polish and singing in the national language was restricted by conservative priests. In this book J. Naujalis legalized the social status of the return of singing in Lithuanian in churches, which was officially approbated by the bishop. What concerns the aspect of religious practice there was no contradiction , because in his book he presented and harmonized the earlier spread chants, but only in his native language Lithuanian. Therefore, during the national rebirth J. Naujalis harmonized chants with Lithuanian words were accepted as the phenomenon of reviving the country Ltihuanianism in all the country. J. Naujalis’ book of chants creatively generalized the liturgical chant tradition of the end of the XIX th. Century - beginning of the XX th century. Catholic religion culture after being baptized was moving to Lithuania from Western Europe through Poland. The consolidation of Polish religious culture as well. Is chant singing traditions were induced by the Union or Lithuanian Grand Principality and Poland in 1569 as the result a federative state Zhechpospolita was formed since then Polish chants in Lithuania began to increase and at the end of the XIX th century they began to prevail. It chows that some chants from J. Naujalis’ book could have very deep historic roots. For example, two of them (“Hail Jesus, holy infant o God, born to us tonight!” (In natali Domini) with Lithuanian words were published in 1646 already in M. Slavochinskys Lithuanian book of chants. Polish and other Christian chants which came to Lithuania were translated later too, the outstanding bishops M. Valanchius and A. Baranauskas having contributed to this in the XIX century.
Due to such deep historic roots Polish chants sung in Lithuania took many local features and the authentic origin of the chants and the authors remained anonymous. Trying to make the origin of chants more precise. The author of the article was looking for the equivalents in Polish books of chants-ks. M. M. Mioduszewski Śpiewnik kościelny (1838), J. Siedlecki Śpiewnik zawierający piesni kościelne z melodyam dla uzytku mlodziezy szkolnej (1886), published in Vilnius in 1905 H. Bojaruniec Śpiewnik kościelny etc. There were some precise equivalents found, most melodies beyond recognition. As in Lithuanian church book of chants there were 11 Latin anti-phons and hymns among all the 60 chants, as well as several German and local chants, others being of Polish origin. The author of the article makes a supposition that this book gives a meaning to the interaction of catholic traditions of singing chants in general and Polish. This interaction by the way, is testified by the spread of the modifications (local music dialects) of the same melodies.
The author interprets the merging of common catholic, Polish and Lithuanian chant singing traditions as the natural convergence of culturological and religions practice. Christian chants which came to Lithuania from Western Europe and Poland with time consolidated themselves in the nation’s consciousness and psychologically became as if theirs. J. Naujalis book implied positive historical relations of hymno-dia, revealed the spheres of religious practice drawing closer among the neighbourhood nations. J. Naujalis at the same time discusses the convergence of Lithuanian - Polish chant singing traditions through the phenomenon of collective memory, which was important for the Lithuanian nation during all the historical time XX th century.
The functioning of J. Naujalis’ book of chants as the materialized of form of nation’s spiritual collective memory, in the life of the nation spread thoroughly at the time of the Soviet invasion in 1940 -1941. When this regime persecuted the freedom of ideas and religion, the chants, which everybody knew since childhood, sung in churches during the biggest holidays turned into religious-national hymns, with the help of which the nations demonstrated, resisted their historical existence and collective memory.
Although collective memory as the national thinking in general during historical time changes undergoes certain changes in value, clashes tendencies of value.
In the years of national rebirth, from the last decades of the XIX th century till World War I, J. Naujalis book of chants suited religions practice and coincided with the spread of Lithuanianism. At the same time the book satisfied the society with its high artistic level from the point of view of music and literary words. But when the independent Lithuanian republic was formed in 1918 and national culture prospered a national professional music school developed, the book of chants didn’t represent exceptional values anymore. Musical figures appeared who began to criticize the Book of chants because of its Polish chants and even offered to abandon it at all. Nevertheless, such an eccentric attitude to religious practice didn’t receive a wider response in the society. This clash of values and positive conclusions confirmed a universal law, that not ethnic, but common religious and moral value expression is more important in religious practice. It coincides with the idea at the Church as the body of mystical Jesus Christ and the archetype of liturgical singing . The author of the article gives arguments for the common forms of liturgical singing being open on the basis of nowadays’ repertoire of church choirs, where the music of different countries and epochs In such more general cultural background in 1906 J. Naujalis prepared and published “Lithuanian church book of chants”, which can be discussed as the phenomenon or the novation of collective memory, which gave meaning to its future with its ideas. This value is ensured by aesthetic values, bet it is even more important that eternal spiritual religious values are implied in the Book of chants. orients to stimulate inherent forces of human personality and freely develop them on basis of Christian values.|
Šiame straipsnyje aptariamas kompozitoriaus, iškiliausio Lietuvos vargonininko J. Naujalio 1906 m. parengtas ir išleistas „Lietuviškas bažnytinis giesmynas“. Leidinys turėjo ypatingą reikšmę XIX a. pab. – XX a. pr. vykusios bažnytinės muzikos reformos ir tautinio atgimimo laikotarpiu. J. Naujalis harmonizavo ir į Giesmyną įtraukė labiausiai paplitusias liturgines giesmes – privalomas lotyniškas antifonas ir himnus, taip pat kitas apeigines giesmes. Dalis šių giesmių į Lietuvą pateko iš Lenkijos, dalis – iš Vakarų Europos. Į Giesmyną įtraukdamas nuo seniausių laikų Lietuvoje giedamas giesmes, J. Naujalis apibendrino lietuvių, lenkų ir Vakarų Europos liturginio giedojimo tradicijų konvergenciją. Ši konvergencija laikytina bendrąja krikščioniškosios kultūros patirtimi. Straipsnyje pagrindžiamas šio reiškinio pozityvumas. Istorinis giesmių paveldas traktuojamas remiantis tautos kolektyvine atmintimi, kuri yra aktuali ir mūsų laikų visuomenei.