|Abstract: ||Žmogaus esmės aiškinimas priklauso nuo filosofijos krypties, kuria remiamasi atskleidžiant šią esmę. Krikščionybės tradicijoje žmogus – gražiausias ir tobuliausias Dievo kūrinys, mirtingo kūno ir nemirtingos dvasios vienovė. Dvasia negali mirti, nes ji yra Amžinosios Būties–Esaties dalelė. Taigi būdamas iš prigimties dvasingas žmogus turi ugdytis dvasingumą, dvasinę kultūrą, kurios pamatas – dora. Doru žmogus tampa internalizuodamas vertybes.|
Excellent theological background and the perfect cognition of Independent Lithuania‘s social life‘s problems, especially those of moral culture of the nation, allowed him to disclose moral problems in practice and to search for their solutions on the scientific basis. For this reason he drew his attention to the cognition of values, their appropriation and realization. So, together with other scientists Tamošaitis was the founder of Lithuanian pedagogy of values and did a lot to develop its ideas.
The moral crisis of a person, according to Tamošaitis, should be analyzed with the help of philosophy science, because it could provide necessary means for considering unanswered questions.
The priest Tamošaitis, while discussing philosophical ideas that deny objective values, proved that the world of objective values truly exists. Truth and Beauty – the values of various forms belong to it. There are more objective values such as Joy, Love, Faithfulness, Freedom, Seriousness, Matured personality.
The objectiveness of the values, according to the philosopher, can be proved not only by individual experience but also ontologically:
• moral values are interrelated with moral nature of a person. A person, who tends to moral values – tends to improve;
• value is a real value for the one, who is realizing it, and, while realizing the value, realizes oneself, that is the idea of one‘s essence;
• the structure of human essence is the same for any individual, that means values are „similar“ to all people. And this means that the real, objective values do exist.
Person is an intermediary between two worlds: by his lowest nature he belongs to the world of nature; by his highest nature – to the world of values. Having the free will person is able to realize values and achieve the ideal, then his existence becomes valuable and significant.
The priest Tamošaitis proves that both for the person, who tends to values, and for the person, who tends to lowest will, transcendental powers may help to overcome obstacles and to rise to the world of values. Summarizing the ideas of various scientists, professor draws attention on the point, that people who take up noble duties tend to think, that they are supported by invisible power. Those, who ever experienced violence or kindness, perfectly understand the idea of transcendental power. So, they perfectly understand the secret, claimed by S. Kierkegaard (1813–1855): “The Requirements of God are the Highest Requirements for the Person”. The conclude with it is necessary to say that in order to realize values empirically the religion foundation is vital, and it depends on human essence.
The priest Tamošaitis makes another point full implementation: The person, who preserves the relations with God, preserves the relations with the world of values too. The philosopher stresses that the soul of a person is the place, where moral values reveal themselves to reality. Person is a place where values are manifesting themselves and are disclosing the tendencies of the ways of how they are realized. The tendencies of realization are the ways of person‘s improvement.
The imperatives for a person, according to the theologian, are the following:
• to be a valuable person;
• to be together with God and full of God;
To sum up, the main ideas are presented:
• life values depend on moral values; if there are no values, there doesn‘t exist the essence of life;
• values can be highest and lowest. Highest values are the way of moral being; lowest values are the way of nature creatures;
• the essence of human essence sleeps in his soul, the essence of life depends on the realization of highest (moral) values. In case the moral values are denied the life looses its essence.
People naturally tend to values, though sometimes they create relative values, which they perceive as objective and vice versa, objective values are understood only as relative. That is why lowest values are worshiped and, as a sequence, they demonize life.