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Type of publication: Straipsnis / Article
Author(s): Alijevaitė, Edita
Title: Terorizmo ir žiniasklaidos sąveika po rugsėjo 11-osios
Other Title: Interaction between terrorism and the media after september 11
Is part of: Politikos mokslų almanachas, 2008, [T.] 3, p. 35-58
Date: 2008
Keywords: Terorizmas;Žiniasklaida;Rugsėjo 11;Terrorism;Media;September 11
Abstract: Šio straipsnio tikslas yra nustatyti, kokia sąveika egzistuoja tarp terorizmo ir žiniasklaidos po Rugsėjo 11-osios pasitelkiant dviejų atvejų studijas: „Al-Qaeda“ lyderio Osama bin Ladeno šešis pranešimus ir musulmonų pranašo Mahometo karikatūrų skandalą. Šiais dviem atvejais siekiama pagrįsti mintį, kad skirtingos žiniasklaidos priemonės (televizija – „Al-Jazeera“ ir spauda – „Jyllands-Posten“) daro tiek tiesioginę, tiek netiesioginę įtaką formuojant teroristų tikslus ir pačius teroro išpuolius. Straipsnyje keliami uždaviniai: 1) apžvelgti terorizmo tikslus žiniasklaidoje ir nustatyti terorizmo vietą politinės komunikacijos procese; 2) nustatyti žiniasklaidos vaidmenį formuojant visuomenės nuomonę apie teroristinius išpuolius; 3) apibrėžti dviejų skirtingų pagal savo pobūdį žiniasklaidos priemonių – televizijos („Al-Jazeera“) ir spaudos („Jyllands-Posten“) – bruožus, kurie leistų nustatyti, koks Vakarų ir arabų žiniasklaidos poveikis teroro išpuolių formavimui.
The aim of this article was to explore the interaction between terrorism and the media after September 11 using two case studies: 6 audio/video statements of “Al-Qaeda” leader Osama bin Laden and the global crisis of publishing a dozen cartoons of the prophet Muhammad. The author seeked to presume that the different media‘s outlets (television “Al-Jazeera” and the press “Jyllands-Posten”) influence the goals and itselfs the attacks of terrorists both directly and indirectly. The results of the research helped the author get to the following conclusions. Publicity has always been a major concern for terrorists because publicity is the “oxygen”. Terrorism universal’s goals that depend on news coverage are: publicity, respectability and legitimacy, attention, recognition. If a terrorist group operates solely in the domestic sphere, the domestic publicity is their most important goal. If terrorists operate in the international sphere, they always gain automatic access to the international triangle of political communication. The impact of media on the public is not a matter of argument, though the audience is not homogeneous. However today’s media culture is one in which there is an acute awareness of image manipulation. The war on terrorism is not immune from this because the media functions as a central mechanism of propaganda. The Middle East media is naturally grounded in the religious, historical, and social forces shaping its society. “Al-Jazeera”, the Arab world’s first all-news network, has been marked as a channel that provides “the view and the other point of view”, but also as a forum of choice for Islamic radicals and the maintenance of O. bin Laden’s assertions.The West media is traditionally grounded in the freedom of the press and the independence from the authority. However the publication of Muhammad cartoons in the Danish newspaper “Jyllands-Posten” inspired not only discussion of the freedom of expression, but also the media’s power to influence the terrorist act directly. The analysis of 6 statements of “Al-Qaeda” leader revealed the target to Americans, Europeans and local audience. Three addresses to Americans placed responsibility for America’s actions on the America people as opposed to just its political leader. The address to Europeans stressed the peace plan. The new statements put forward the problems of Western hegemony that are layed in Muslim countries. The analysis of the crisis of Muhammad cartoons payed deep attention to the theory of the clash of civilizations, possibility of provocation, and the content of cartoons. The reaction of Islam countries consisted of banning imports, the protest and attacks against Western embassies. The reaction of Western divided up two groups: the first denied the ability to publish cartoons, the second declared the support to Denmark. The interaction between terrorism and the media is direct and indirect.
Appears in Collections:Politikos mokslų almanachas 2008, [t.] 3

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