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Type of publication: Straipsnis / Article
Author(s): Grosmane, Elita
Title: Развитие истории искусств в Латвии. Проблемы и решения
Other Title: The development of art history in Latvia. Problems and solutions
Is part of: Meno istorija ir kritika, 2011, nr. 7, p. 137-143
Date: 2011
Keywords: General Latvian art histories;Wilhelm Neumann;Visvalds Penģerots;Jānis Siliņš;Art history on internet
Abstract: В статье будут рассмотрены наиболее значимые изменения в истории искусства Латвии с момента смены парадигм, определяющих дальнейшее ее развитие. Представленное обозрение основывается на историографической схеме изменений только в общей истории искусства Латвии. В таком аспекте историографический анализ до настоящего времени не осуществлялся. В многочисленных исследованиях и в соответствующих публикациях историографические разделы соотносились лишь с конкретной тематикой текстов. В качестве таких частных и обширных историографических примеров последнего времени можно назвать монографии о Язепсе Гросвалдсе и Иоганне Валтерсе. Однако общие вопросы смены парадигм истории искусства Латвии в подобных исследованиях не затрагивались.
This article deals with some significant points of turns in the general art history of Latvia, especially emphasizing the moments of paradigm shifts that have influenced further development. This insight is based on the scheme of development of general art historiography. The first signs of interest in art processes are found in the curricula of the Riga Dome School, Royal Lyceum and the Academia Petrina in Jelgava. More important further steps have been taken by Kurzeme Literature and Artistic Association (1816) and the Association of Researchers of History and Antiquity in the Baltic Provinces of Russia. These coincided with the interest in national history, culture and art, revived by Romanticism. By the end of the 1880s, first professionally trained art historian Wilhelm Neumann (1849–1919) and his colleagues started their careers. They can be called the new generation, which set off a significant shift in the history of art. It reached its apogee when a book, called the first art history of Latvia and Estonia, was published in 1887. The next phase of development relates to the period of the Republic of Latvia, when the art-historical survey Mākslas vēsture in three volumes, formally edited by Vilhelms Purvītis, was published in the mid-1930s. The author of the concept and several chapters was art historian Visvalds Penģerots. Like the survey, written in Lithuanian and published in Jelgava (1923) by Kazimieras Jasėnas (1867–1950), it was a compilation-based general art history with chapters, introducing national art. The official cultural politics of the Soviet regime was oriented towards extolling of socialist realist art, mostly distorting the course of art-historical development. Thus the Latvian art history became a section of the Soviet family of nations, commissioned and created in Moscow. The idea of the national art history still survived, and Latviešu tēlotāja māksla 1860–1940 (Latvian Fine Arts 1860–1940) was published in 1986; the other two volumes remained unpublished. Unfortunately, the articles published were dependant on the official ideology of the time. Another general art history, created by Jānis Siliņš in his emigration years (Latvian Art. 1800–1940), was a professionally correct survey. During the recent years of independence, the art historians of Latvia are using the potential of the new media: in 2006, a project of Latvian art history was launched on the Internet, based on essentialist art history, but at the same time opened for further growth in various directions.
Appears in Collections:Art History & Criticism / Meno istorija ir kritika 2011, nr. 7

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