Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/31801
Type of publication: Straipsnis / Article
Author(s): Laukaitytė, Regina
Title: Kauno stačiatikių bendruomenė XIX–XX a.
Other Title: Kaunas Orthodox society in the 19th and 20th centuries
Is part of: Kauno istorijos metraštis, 2008, nr. 9, p. 89-106
Date: 2008
Keywords: Stačiatikiai;Bendruomenė;Kaunas;Orthodox;Society
Abstract: Tyrinėtojai jau yra analizavę įvairius Kauno rusų bendruomenės istorijos aspektus ir tiesiogiai tam skirtuose, ir tautinių mažumų problematiką atspindinčiuose darbuose. Iki šiol paskelbti tyrimai rodo didžiausią susidomėjimą rusų kultūriniu paveldu, visuomeniniu gyvenimu 1918–1940 m. laikotarpiu1. Nors kai kuriuose darbuose neapeinama ir religinė problematika, integracijos bei asimiliacijos procesai, vis dėlto specialiai šie klausimai dar tyrinėtini. Apie stačiatikių cerkvių istoriją daugiau galima sužinoti iš XIX a. skirtų darbų2, tuo tarpu sovietinio ir pastarojo posovietinio laikotarpio istorijos faktai kol kas aptinkami publicistikoje. Šio straipsnio tikslas – apžvelgti Kauno stačiatikių bendruomenės raidą XIX–XX a. ir aptarti kai kuriuos joje vykusius integracijos į miesto bei šalies gyvenimą procesus. Stačiatikių integracijos procesus Lietuvoje XX a. nulėmė jų izoliavimas nuo Rusijos, kur jų Bažnyčia buvo persekiojama ir naikinama. Būdinga, kad Lietuvos valstybė nei 1918–1940 m., nei po 1990–ųjų nesiėmė prievartinių priemonių stačiatikių integracijai paspartinti (vyskupija liko Maskvos patriarchijos jurisdikcijoje, pamaldos vyksta senąja slavų kalba). Kauno stačiatikių bendruomenę, suprantama, sudarė įvairių politinių pažiūrų žmonės, tačiau šios Bažnyčios vadovybė tarpukariu ir parapijos klebonai 1990 m. lūžio laikotarpiu deklaravo lojalumą Lietuvos valstybingumui, suvaidindami pozityvų vaidmenį pilietiniam bendruomenės integravimui.
The article reviews the history of Kaunas Orthodox society in the 19th and 20th centuries by giving the most important facts of the historical development of the society and encyclopedic data about the Orthodox Churches. The first Orthodox parish was established relatively late, in 1824, when the Jesuit monastery church, closed by the tsarist government, was turned into the Orthodox Church. The late coming of Orthodoxy into the ethnic Lithuania was defined by the fact that there were no local Orthodox people, whereas the number of arrived Orthodox officials remained small for a long time. In Vilnius, several uniate churches were working and the monastery of the Holy Ghost retained links with the Orthodox culture of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Kaunas, differently form Vilnius, did not have any Orthodox heritage, thus the tsarist government had to build the whole church structure. In the 19th century, 16 Orthodox Churches were opened in the city, although the number does not reveal the fast growth of Orthodox dwellers. In 1824-1884, one parish was active and in 1884-1915, two parishes were already working. The rest of the Orthodox Churches belonged to the military regiments or were established in such state institutions as schools, hospital and prison. For nearly one hundred years, Kaunas was an administrative centre of Orthodox Church. In 1843-1915, it held a secondary position (a curate of Vilnius archbishop had a residence in the city), whereas in 1923-1939, the provisional capital of Lithuania became the centre of Lithuanian Orthodox bishopric. The article analyzes such aspects of Orthodox integration as civil orientation and “Lithuanianizing”. In Lithuania, Orthodoxy did not become a religion of local people. The integration processes of Orthodoxy in the 20th century were defined by their isolation from Russia which pursued the politics of persecution and elimination of the Orthodox Church. It should be noted that Lithuania did not force the inducement of Orthodox integration neither in 1918-1940, nor after 1990 (the bishopric remained within the jurisdiction of Moscow Patriarchy and the mass is held in the old Slavonic language). Kaunas Orthodox Society consisted of people with varied political views. Nevertheless, the heads of the church during the inter-war period and parish priests in the turning point of 1990 declared their loyalty to the Lithuanian statehood enhancing civil integration of the society.
Internet: https://eltalpykla.vdu.lt/1/31801
https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/31801
Appears in Collections:Kauno istorijos metraštis 2008, nr. 9

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