Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/31563
Type of publication: Straipsnis / Article
Author(s): Juškienė, Regina
Title: Architekto Stasio Kudoko kūryba Kaune
Other Title: Creation of architect Stasys Kudokas in Kaunas
Is part of: Kauno istorijos metraštis, 2006, nr. 7, p. 153-171
Date: 2006
Keywords: Architektūra;Architektūros tipologija;Gyvenamieji namai;Visuomeniniai pastatai;Modernizmas;Tarpukaris;Kaunas;Architecture;Typology;Public buildings;Interwar;Modernism
Abstract: Straipsnyje analizuojamas architekto Stasio Kudoko kūrybinis palikimas. S. Kudoko kūryba Kaune tarpukario architektūros kontekste užėmė reikšmingą vietą ir atitiko bendras tarpukario Lietuvos moderniosios architektūros tendencijas, išlaikydama pusiausvyrą tarp modernizmo ir retrospektyvizmo. Modernizmas architekto kūryboje pasireiškia pastatų planavimo racionalumu ir funkcionalumu, asimetriška fasadų kompozicija, apibendrintomis formomis, laisva tūrių kompozicija, pastangomis formuoti plokščią stogų vaizdą. Retrospektyvizmas buvo nulemtas to meto visuomenės mentaliteto ir stereotipinių pažiūrų į visuomenei reikšmingų pastatų grožį. Jis pasireiškė tiek centrinės ašies kompozicija, simetrija, tiek istorizmo elementų (šiuo atveju renesanso) naudojimu. Vienas ryškiausių S. Kudoko architektūros bruožų – glaudus architektūros ryšys su sklypu ir miesto kraštovaizdžiu, pasireiškęs kūrybišku santykiu su reljefu ir atidumu vietiniam kontekstui. Italijos architektūros mokyklos įtaka pasireiškia pabrėžtu pastato vidaus erdvės ryšiu su gamtine aplinka, panaudojus balkonų, galerijų, terasų, laiptų įkomponavimą. S. Kudokas pasižymėjo kaip novatorius, pažangių architektūros idėjų pradininkas Lietuvoje. Sukūrė specifinę mokyklų architektūrą, pagrįstą racionaliu funkciniu zonavimu ir savitu dekoru, taip pat vaikų darželių tūrinį-planinį sprendimą, tapusį etalonu. Pirmasis Kaune sukūrė geriausią daugiafunkcinį namą – pigių butų koloniją. Vienas iš pirmųjų suprojektavo plokščius ir mansardinius stogus, terasose kūrė žiemos sodus.
The creation of S.Kudokas in the context of the interwar Kaunas architecture occupied a considerable position. The works of the architect met the tendencies of modern architecture of the interwar Lithuania maintaining the balance between the modernism and retrospectivism. The modernism in creation of S.Kudokas was revealed through the rationality and functionality of the building layout, asymmetric façade composition, broad-brush forms, free composition of size, minimal décor and formation of flat view of the roofs. The retrospectivism was determined by the dominant mentality of society and stereotypical approach to the look of significant buildings. The elements of retrospectivism were the composition of the central axis, symmetry, application of historical (Renaissance) elements. The listed elements were applied with moderation and stylization; therefore, new peculiar compositions were formed. One of the most distinct elements of S.Kudokas creation is a close relation of architecture with the site and landscape; creative attitude to the relief; attention to local (natural and urban) context. A complex relief was a possibility for the architect to show his mastership. Having this aspect in mind, creation can be compared to the feeling of genius loci, which is evidenced through a sensitive relation with the surroundings. Another vivid element in the works of S.Kudokas is compositions of rectangular and plastic forms reflected in the size, facades and décor of the buildings. The influence of the Italian school of architecture is reflected in the harmonization of the architecture and nature through the combination of balconies, galleries, terraces and stairs. A particular attention is paid to the external function of the stairs, their artistic expression and integration with the building ensemble. The most typical architectural element of S.Kudokas works the motive of arch (Renaissance reminiscence) is applied in nearly all buildings of the architect. The arch serves either functional and decorative functions or only decorative function. One more characteristic element of décor in S.Kudokas works is an allusion to the Renaissance great order expressed by vertical floats, pilasters, stylized half-pillars and their transformations integrated between the Windows throughout all floors of the building. Narrow vertical windows which are universal in expression possibilities are also very common. Such windows were suitable for both highlighting modern stylistics and integrating Renaissance reminiscences. S.Kudokas was seen as an innovator and initiator of modern architectural ideas in Lithuania. The architect was sensitive to the needs of young generation. He created a specific school architecture, which was based on rational functional zoning, and an etalon model of a kindergarten. S.Kudokas was the first architect, who following European tendencies, created the best multifunctional block of flats in Kaunas a colony of cheap flats. S. Kudokas was also one the first to project flat and cascade roofs and create winter gardens in terraces.
Internet: https://eltalpykla.vdu.lt/1/31563
https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/31563
Appears in Collections:Kauno istorijos metraštis 2006, nr. 7

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