Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/31503
Type of publication: Straipsnis / Article
Author(s): Bucevičiūtė, Laima
Title: Vandens kelias Kaunas – Karaliaučius XV – XVIII a. kartografijoje
Other Title: The waterway Kaunas - Karaliaučius in the cartography of the 15th-18th centuries
Is part of: Kauno istorijos metraštis, 2005, nr. 6, p. 55-104
Date: 2005
Keywords: Kartografija;Kauno istorija;Karaliaučius;Vandens kelias;Transporto istorija;Laivyba;Documents;Forgery;Custom;Lithuania;Metrics;Register;Kaunas
Abstract: Tyrimu siekiama apžvelgti vandens kelio Kaunas – Karaliaučius funkcionavimo istorinį kontekstą bei pristatyti žinias apie jo tvarkymo projektus. Platesnis žvilgsnis į kelio egzistavimą, neapsiribojant vien kartografija, suteiks tyrimui įvairiapusiškumo ir padės atsekti vandens kelio, keturių upių trasomis jungiančio Kauną ir Karaliaučių, vaizdavimo ypatumus XV – XVII a. kartografijoje, keliant klausimą, ar vandens kelias buvo fiksuojamas tik kaip fizinis geografinis krašto erdvės komponentas, ar jo vaizdavimą papildė ir socialinės ekonominės geografijos požymiai. Kada pradėjo ryškėti pirmieji šio proceso pėdsakai, kokiu būdu tai pasireiškė ir kaip atskirti, kur tik paprasta fizinė geografija, o kur – vandens kelias kaip gamtinė – socialinė sistema. Tyrime išskirtinai svarbiausia yra vandens trasa, o ne pasirinkti jos atskaitos taškai. Tad Kauno miestas, bent jau kartografinėje plotmėje, lyg ir liks paraštėje.
The article analyzes the falsified summary of Kaunas customs register, inscribed in the Lithuanian Metrics book No6. The problem of falsification of Kaunas customs register should be viewed as directly related to the durable conflict between the Kaunas municipality and the Kaunas office of Gdansk (one of the Hanza members) traders. The major reason of disagreement was the issue of the rights of guest traders in Kaunas (Gästehandel). During the period of 1497-1506, Kaunas customs which was subordinate to the ruler introduced an illegal customs for salt applied to the guest traders. The presence and application of the illegal customs is evidenced by the official documentation such as the chancery books of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Lithuanian Metrics. The case of Kaunas register falsification was closed by the court of King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania Alexander Jogailaitis in 1506 when one of the register compilers’ and former Kaunas customs officer Danilovičius (a Karaite) witnessed that the quota of the second customs tariff for salt in Kaunas customs was illegal and that he did not inscribe it into the document. A conclusion follows that the new Kaunas customs officer Sliacher falsified the register of Kaunas customs what made it possible to justify the illegal quota of the second customs tariff for salt. A detailed analysis of documentation revealed the method of falsification. First, the illegal quota was inserted into existing documents. Second, inscription in the Lithuanian Metrics was made. According to the evidence of a less accurate method of textualism, two more questionable fragments of text were traced. Namely, the duplication of trader ships customs and the regulations of wood customs. The first prediction of falsification came out to be true, whereas the prediction of wood customs falsification appeared to be false. To conclude, the reason of falsification of Kaunas customs register and its inscription into the Lithuanian Metrics was an attempt to hide the traces of illegal documentation and to justify the illegal quota of the double customs tariff for salt. The method of falsification allows to group Kaunas customs register with the so-called chancery falsifications (Kanzleifälschungen; faux de chancellerie) and false acts (actes subreptices ou furtifs; dokumenty wyłudzony). However, it still remains unclear whether the falsified inscription in the Lithuanian Metrics evidences the corruption of the chancery of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
Internet: https://eltalpykla.vdu.lt/1/31503
https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/31503
Appears in Collections:Kauno istorijos metraštis 2005, nr. 6

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