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dc.contributor.authorMakarevičienė, Violeta-
dc.contributor.authorSendžikienė, Eglė-
dc.contributor.authorGaidė, Ieva-
dc.descriptionDocument Type:Review-
dc.description.abstractRecently, there is a growing interest in the use of microalga in various fields. Microalgae have properties such as rapid reproduction and high biomass accumulation, and under certain conditions, some are able to accumulate a large amount of oil. However, microalgae oil often contains more free fatty acids than the vegetable oil and is therefore unsuitable for biodiesel synthesis using alkaline catalysts. For this reason, some authors suggest the application of heterogeneous catalysis. A particular interest in the use of immobilized enzymes has developed. Other solid substances can also be used as heterogeneous catalysts are usually metal oxides, carbonates or zeolites. The use of these catalysts results in simpler biodiesel synthesis, especially purification processes, a cleaner end product and a less polluted environment. The molar ratio of alcohol to oil is lower during enzymatic transesterification, and more than 90% ester yield is obtained using a molar ratio of alcohol to oil of 3:1 to 4.5:1. The alcohols do not have a negative effect on the effectiveness of chemical catalysts, so it is possible to use alcohols in molar ratio from 4:1 to 12:1. The optimal temperature of enzymatic process is 30°C‒50°C. An ester yield of more than 95% was obtained in 12‒48 h. Using chemical catalysts, greater than a 95% yield of esters was obtained at higher temperatures in a shorter time. Material costs of enzymatic catalysis can be reduced by reusing the catalysts directly or after regenerationen
dc.description.sponsorshipMiškų ir ekologijos fakultetas-
dc.description.sponsorshipVytauto Didžiojo universitetas-
dc.description.sponsorshipŽemės ūkio akademija-
dc.format.extentp. 1-21-
dc.relation.ispartofFrontiers of Environmental Science & Engineering. Beijing: Springer, 2021, vol. 15, iss. 5-
dc.relation.isreferencedbyScience Citation Index Expanded (Web of Science)-
dc.subjectHeterogeneous catalysisen
dc.subjectMicroalgae oilen
dc.subject.classificationStraipsnis Clarivate Analytics Web of Science / Article in Clarivate Analytics Web of Science (S1)-
dc.subject.otherAplinkos inžinerija / Environmental engineering (T004)-
dc.titleApplication of heterogeneous catalysis to biodiesel synthesis using microalgae oilen
dc.typeresearch article-
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item.grantfulltextnone-škų ir ekologijos fakultetas-škų ir ekologijos fakultetas-Žemės ūkio akademija-
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