Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/125116
Type of publication: master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law (S001)
Author(s): Olšauskaitė, Deimantė
Supervisor: Milčiuvienė, Saulė
Title: Ar Europos Sąjunga draudžia diskriminaciją dėl nutukimo (antsvorio)?
Other Title: Whether the European Union prohibits discrimination on the basis of obesity (overweight)?
Extent: 47 p.
Date: 12-Jan-2017
Keywords: Diskriminacija;nutukimas;antsvoris.;Discrimination;obesity;overweight.
Abstract: Darbe yra keliama hipotezė, kad Europos Sąjunga draudžia diskriminaciją dėl nutukimo (antsvorio). Tam, kad ši hipotezė galėtų būti patvirtinta arba paneigta, pirmiausia yra atskleidžiama diskriminacijos samprata, išsiaiškinama nediskriminavimo principo esmė ir svarba Europos Sąjungos teisėje, taip pat kokių formų diskriminacija yra draudžiama ir kaip ji gali pasireikšti. Darbo tikslas yra pasiekiamas analizuojant mokslinius darbus, Europos Sąjungos ir atskirų valstybių narių, taip pat Jungtinių Amerikos Valstijų teisinį reguliavimą ir teismų praktiką. Įvairiose šalyse didėjant antsvorio turinčių ir nutukusių asmenų skaičiui, vis dažniau yra susiduriama su diskriminacija, kuri gali pasireikšti įvairiose srityse, pavyzdžiui, darbo santykiuose, sveikatos priežiūroje, mokymosi bei švietimo įstaigose, žiniasklaidoje ir kitose. Dažniausiai su ja susiduriama būtent darbo santykiuose. Todėl tai yra rimta problemą, kurią reikėtų spręsti, siekiant apsaugoti nutukusius bei antsvorio turinčius asmenis, kad jie galėtų įgyvendinti savo turimas teises lygiai su visais kitais asmenimis, neturinčiais jokių svorio problemų. Analizuojant Europos Sąjungos teisinį reguliavimą ir teismų praktiką, buvo išsiaiškinta, kad bendras nediskriminavimo principas kyla iš būtinybės apsaugoti fundamentalias žmogaus teises, o viena iš jų yra būtent teisė į lygybę, į vienodą įstatymo apsaugą. Šio principo formavimui ir aiškinimui įtakos turėjo Europos Žmogaus Teisių Konvencija, Europos Sąjungos pagrindinių teisių chartija, Sutartys ir jų pagrindu priimti kiti teisės aktai, draudžiantys diskriminaciją. Tačiau Europos Sąjungos Sutartimi ir Sutartimi dėl Europos Sąjungos veikimo ES yra suteikta kompetencija imtis priemonių kovai su diskriminacija tik dėl aiškiai įvardintų diskriminacijos pagrindų, tarp kurių nėra įvardintas nutukimas ar antsvoris. EŽTK ir ES pagrindinių teisių chartijos straipsniai, įtvirtinantys atvirą diskriminacijos pagrindų sąrašą, nėra pagrindas drausti diskriminaciją dėl nutukimo (antsvorio) ES teisėje, kadangi jie nesukuria jokių įgaliojimų priimti įstatymo galią turinčius teisės aktus, įskaitant valstybių narių įstatymų ir kitų teisės aktų suderinimą, siekiant kovoti su diskriminacija. Darbe buvo išsiaiškinta, kad nutukimas tam tikrais atvėjais gali būti laikomas negalia. Remiantis Europos Sąjungos Teisingumo Teismo suformuota taisykle, asmuo gali būti pripažintas neįgaliu, jeigu jo nutukimas sukelia apribojimus, trukdančius jam visapusiškai ir veiksmingai užsiimti profesine veikla ir jeigu šie apribojimai yra susiję su kokiais nors fiziniais, protiniais ar psichikos sutrikimais, kurie yra ilgalaikiai. Diskriminacija dėl negalios ES teisėje yra draudžiama, tačiau tokią apsaugą turi tik tie asmenys, kurie yra kompetentingi ir geba atlikti pagrindines darbo funkcijas. Galiausiai darbe buvo prieita išvados, kad ES tiesiogiai nedraudžia diskriminuoti dėl nutukimo (antsvorio), tačiau nuo diskriminacinių veiksmų netiesiogiai yra apsaugomi nutukę asmenys, jeigu jie yra kvalifikuoti, geba atlikti pagrindines darbo funkcijas ir jeigu jų nutukimas yra pripažįstamas negalia.
The hypothesis of the thesis is that the EU prohibits discrimination on the basis of obesity (overweight). In order to confirm or deny this hypothesis, first of all the concept of discrimination is revealed, the significance of non-discrimination principle and its importance in the EU law are explained, the paper also explains the forms of discrimination that are prohibited and how discrimination can occur. The aim of the thesis is achieved by analyzing the scientific works, legal regulation and case law of the EU and individual Member States, as well as the US. Since the number of overweight and obese people is increasing in various countries, the discrimination is becoming more frequent, it may occur in various areas, such as labor relations, health care, in educational institutions, the media and in other fields. In most cases discrimination is faced in working relations. Therefore, this is a serious problem that should be addressed in order to protect the obese and overweight people so that they can implement their existing rights equally with all other persons who do not have any weight problems. In a legal sense, discrimination should be understood as making of differences or different treatment of persons as a result of their outstanding properties, which are unjustified and harmful to the person, cause negative consequences, violate the principle of equality and are prohibited by law. The analysis of the EU legal regulation and case law has revealed that the general principle of non-discrimination arises from the need to protect fundamental human rights, and one of them is the right to equality, to equal protection of the law. The formation and interpretation of this principle was influenced by the ECHR, the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights, Contracts and other legislation prohibiting discrimination. This principle is common to all Member States. However, by the European Union Treaty and the Treaty on the Functioning of the EU, the European Union has been given the competence to take measures to fight discrimination only on clearly identified grounds of discrimination, which do not include obesity and overweight. ECHR and the Articles of the EU Charter on Fundamental Rights, which establish an open list of grounds for discrimination, is not a basis to prohibit discrimination for obesity (overweight) in the EU law, as they do not create any power to adopt acts having the power of legislation, including harmonization of the Member States' laws and legislation in order to fight with discrimination. The paper has found out that obesity in some cases may be considered as a disability. According to the rule formed by ECJ, a person can be recognized as disabled, if the obesity causes restrictions preventing them to fully and effectively engage in a professional activity, and if these restrictions are associated with any physical, mental or psychiatric disorders, which are long-term. Discrimination based on disability is prohibited by the EU law, however such protection is only given to those persons who are qualified and able to perform the essential job functions. Finally, the paper has concluded that the EU does not directly prohibit discrimination on the basis of obesity (overweight), however the obese individuals are indirectly protected from discriminatory actions, if they are qualified and able to perform the essential job functions and if their obesity is recognized as a disability. Meanwhile, overweight usually does not cause any health problems, therefore overweight people would hardly be able to demonstrate that their overweight impose restrictions that hinder their full and effective exercise of professional activities. Because of this reason overweight people, most likely, will not be protected against discrimination for their weight. In the non-discrimination the EU establishes only minimum standards that must be met by each Member State, but it is not prohibited to ensure a better protection in this field. The analysis of the legal regulations of different countries has revealed that in fact there is no unified opinion how the issue on discrimination for obesity (overweight) should be dealt with. The approach to obese and overweight people differs in different countries, therefore the protection against this kind of discrimination also differs. Some Member States in their national law have established the prohibition of discrimination based on physical appearance in the field of employment, which also includes obesity and overweight. Such a ban is also established in some parts of the US. Meanwhile, some jurisdictions have their own legislation directly prohibiting discrimination on grounds of obesity (overweight) in the field of employment. None of the above prohibitions is provided for in the EU law. The paper has found out that the US federal law does not provide a direct prohibition of discrimination on grounds of obesity (overweight), but as with the EU law, it provides an opportunity for obese individuals to protect themselves against discriminatory actions on the basis of disability. However, the concept of disability in the US federal law is much wider, therefore, it is easier for obese and overweight people to prove their disability. This provides more options to protect against discrimination for obesity (overweight).
Internet: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/125116
Appears in Collections:VDU, ASU ir LEU iki / until 2018

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