Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/124848
Type of publication: master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law (S001)
Author(s): Vicbelytė, Samanta
Title: Ar fizinė bausmė auklėjant vaikus yra smurtas, todėl vaikams taikomos fizinės bausmės turėtų būti pripažintos nusikalstama veika Lietuvos respublikoje?
Other Title: If Corporal Punishment Is Considered as Violence in Parenting Then Corporal Punishment Used on Children Should Be Admitted as Criminal Activity in Lithuania?
Extent: 49 p.
Date: 5-Jun-2015
Keywords: Fizinė bausmė;smurtas;vaiko auklėjimas;baudžiamasis reguliavimas;Corporal punishment;violence;parenting;criminal regulation
Abstract: Atlikti moksliniai tyrimai patvirtina, kad fizinės bausmės, naudojamos auklėjant vaikus, pasireiškia ne tik fiziniu smurtu, tačiau tai taip pat apima emocinį ir psichologinį smurtą. Moksliniai tyrimai ir užsienio teismų praktikos pavyzdžiai patvirtina, kad fizinės bausmės gali kelti pavojų tokioms visuomenėje saugomoms vertybėms, kaip asmens laisvė, vaiko teisės, sveikata, gyvybė ir kt. Lietuvoje, nors vaiko teisinė apsauga nuo smurto įtvirtinta atskiruose įstatymuose, tačiau teisės normų visuma negarantuoja visapusiškos vaiko apsaugos nuo visų rūšių bei formų smurto, taip pat nėra numatyto fizinių bausmių apibrėžimo. Nors Lietuvoje kyla atsakomybė už sukeltus fizinio smurto padarinius, tačiau kitais atvejais, kai yra panaudojamos kitos smurto rūšys, kurios yra sunkiau pastebimos, gali neužtraukti baudžiamosios atsakomybės, nes toki atvejai lieka nepastebėti ir užslėpti. Todėl darbe atskleidžiama fizinės bausmės samprata, analizuojama, kokiais būdais pasireiškia fizinės bausmės, taip pat kaip reglamentuojama baudžiamoji atsakomybė už fizinių bausmių taikymą vaikams užsienio valstybėse ir Lietuvoje, ir ar šiuo metu LR Baudžiamajame kodekse įtvirtintos normos užtikrina galimybę patraukti baudžiamojon atsakomybėn asmenis, kurie naudojo fizines bausmes auklėjant vaikus. Darbo objektas – fizinių bausmių kaip smurto naudojimo, auklėjant vaikus, baudžiamasis reguliavimas. Darbo tikslas – atskleidus fizinės bausmės sampratą, nustatyti, ar Lietuvoje atskirai turi būti numatyta baudžiamoji atsakomybė už fizinių bausmių naudojimą auklėjant vaikus. Darbe naudojami dokumentų analizės, lyginamasis, apibendrinimo ir sisteminio, istorinio, loginio, kalbinio teisės aiškinimo metodai. Išanalizavus mokslinę literatūrą, užsienio bei Lietuvos teisės aktus, darbe daromos išvados, kad fizinės bausmės, kurios pasireiškia vaiko mušimu, laisvės suvaržymu, žeminimu, patyčiomis bei kitokiais panašiais veiksmais ir naudojamos auklėjant vaikus yra laikytinos smurtu. Nors Lietuvoje fizinės bausmės visa apimtimi nėra uždraustos, tačiau už vaiko sveikatos sužalojimą, skausmo sukėlimą ar žiaurų elgesį su vaiku numatyta baudžiamoji atsakomybė, todėl darbe nepasitvirtino hipotezė, kad fizinės bausmės, kurios taikomos auklėjant vaikus, turi būti pripažintos kaip atskira nusikalstama veika. Tačiau siekiant visiško fizinių bausmių, kurios pasireiškia įvairiomis smurto rūšimis ir formomis, uždraudimo, rekomenduotina apibrėžti fizinių bausmių sąvoką.
The performed research confirms that corporal punishment used for parenting occurs not only in a form of physical violence, but also emotional and psychological abuse. Although, corporal punishment of children seemed acceptable and appropriate as an educational tool in ancient times, when the society developed together with educational measures - corporal punishment gradually became unacceptable. Thus, more and more different organizations appear in the world that oppose corporal punishment of children, claiming that it is a violation of children' rights to physical integrity, human dignity and equal protection of the law. Scientific studies and practice of foreign courts confirm that corporal punishment in parenting may pose a threat to society's protected values such as personal freedom, children' rights, health, life, and so on. Sweden was among the first countries to completely prohibit corporal punishment for children in all living environments. Although, the numbers of countries that completely prohibit it are increasing every year, only half of Europe and only a small fraction of the whole word have banned the corporal punishments completely in all living environments. In Lithuania law does not define the corporal punishment concept at all. Even though, criminal liability comes from using violence against a child or cruel behavior towards the child, it is not completely clear, whether criminal liability should come from abusing the child in any form. The use of corporal punishment on a child in home environment is not directly prohibited in Lithuania, however, there were several projects, which would help define the concepts of corporal punishment and violence, by stating that those are prohibited. Despite all efforts, cases of child abuse are still very often. Thus, it is necessary to take strict measures to solve this issue by discussing a possibility to clarify criminal liability for corporal punishments on a child. Although most of the countries of the world have not yet banned corporal punishment in raising their children, half of European countries have already outlawed corporal punishment of children in all living environments. Even though, child's legal protection from violence is established by separate laws in Lithuania, legal regulations as a whole does not guarantee full protection of the child from all types and forms of violence. For these reasons, this paper analyzes the ways in which corporal punishment occurs and what is the position of various world organizations and institutions on corporal punishment. In addition, the paper explores how criminal liability for physical punishment of children in foreign countries is regulated and if current norms of Criminal Code of Lithuania are sufficient enough for the prosecution against individuals who have used corporal punishment in parenting. The object of this the paper - criminal regulation for applying corporal punishment and the use of violence in raising children. The aim of the thesis is disclosure of the concept of corporal punishment to determine whether the use of corporal punishment in parenting should be considered criminal liability in Lithuania. Main supposition - corporal punishment used in parenting, has to be recognized as a separate criminal offense. Goals of the research – to define corporal punishment conception; to define violence conception; disclose corporal punishment and violence relation; identify global and European countries regulatory developments on corporal punishment of children; analyze the criminal liability regulations in Lithuania for the use of corporate punishment in parenting; analyze foreign laws, norms and regulations of using corporal punishment; to compare foreign and Lithuania criminal law norms governing criminal liability of corporal punishment. For this paper document analysis, comparative, summary and systematic, historical, logical as well as linguistic methods of law interpretation were used. United Nations Child care committee has defined corporal punishment, as the use of physical strength to inflict pain or discomfort, even in a slight form. In many European countries law protects children from severe physical injuries, usually defined as cruelty towards children. Nonetheless, many countries does not prohibit parents from using corporal punishments on their children in any criminal or civil laws in other words, there is no criminal liability for it, with an exception of them being “rational” and “temperate“ (i.e.: UK, Island, Australia and some other). After a through analysis of scientific literature and foreign as well as Lithuanian laws, the paper concluded that any corporal punishment used in parenting is a child abuse that can be expressed in a form of beating a child, the restriction of ones freedom, bullying, humiliation or any similar wrongdoings. Although, in Lithuania corporal punishment as a whole is not prohibited, there is criminal liability for cruelty to a child, also for injuring or hurting a child. In other words, for those who abuse their parental rights, by violating children' rights. Thus, this does not confirm the hypothesis that corporal punishment used in parenting, has to be recognized as a separate criminal offense. However, in order to achieve a complete ban of corporal punishments, it is recommended to clearly define the concept of corporal punishments.
Internet: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/124848
Affiliation(s): Teisės fakultetas
Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas
Appears in Collections:VDU, ASU ir LEU iki / until 2018

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