Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/124437
Type of publication: master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law (S001)
Author(s): Valatkaitė, Karolina
Title: Ar valstybinės vaiko teisių apsaugos institucijos užtikrina vaiko interesus santuokos nutraukimo atveju?
Other Title: Whether state authority ensures children rights in divorce cases?
Extent: 46 p.
Date: 5-Jun-2014
Keywords: vaiko teisių apsaugos institucijos;vaiko teisės;vaiko interesai;santuokos nutraukimo bylos;child protection authorities;rights of the child;child interests;divorce cases
Abstract: 1995 m. Jungtinių Tautų vaiko teisių konvencijos ratifikavimas sąlygojo Vaiko teisių apsaugos pagrindų įstatymo priėmimą, kuriuo buvo įsipareigota gerinti vaikų teisinę apsaugą šalyje. Tuo pagrindu sukurtas vaiko teisių apsaugos institucijų mechanizmas, leidęs vystyti vaiko teisių ir jo teisėtų interesų apsaugą apimant ir santuokos nutraukimo bylas. Atsižvelgiant į tai, darbe keliamas tikslas – išanalizuoti, ar vaiko teisių apsaugos institucijos turi pakankamai galimybių užtikrinti vaiko teises santuokos nutraukimo bylose. Darbe analizuojami vaiko teisių apsaugos institucijų bei vaiko interesai tėvams nutraukiant santuoką, institucijos teikiamos išvados svarba teisminiame procese, analizuojami kai kurių valstybių (Jungtinės Karalystės ir Švedijos) vaiko teisių apsaugos institucijų veiklos ypatumai nutraukiant santuoką bei Lietuvos Respublikos teismų praktika, susijusi su vaiko teisių apsaugos institucijų dalyvavimu ir vaiko interesų užtikrinimu, kurios pagalba galima nustatyti, ar vaiko teisių apsaugos institucijos užtikrina vaiko interesus santuokos nutraukimo bylose. Apžvelgus kai kurias Lietuvos teismuose nagrinėtas santuokos nutraukimo bylas, kuriose turi dalyvauti vaiko teisių apsaugos institucijos atstovas, pastebėtina, jog reikia tobulinti vaiko teisių apsaugos institucijų sistemą, kadangi teismai ne visada gali remtis vaiko teisių apsaugos institucijų pateiktom išvadom dėl objektyvumo trūkumo. Pateiktose išvadose trūksta informacijos, susijusios su vaiko gyvenimo sąlygomis, jo ryšiais su kiekvienu iš tėvų, neanalizuojami paties vaiko norai ir požiūris. Lyginant santuokos nutraukimo proceso ypatumus su kitomis užsienio valstybėmis, tokiomis kaip Jungtinė Karalystė, Švedija, pastebėtina, jog šiose valstybėse santuokos nutraukimo procesas žymiai paprastesnis dėl įtvirtintos alternatyvios galimybės nutraukti santuoką ir išspręsti visus klausimus, susijusius su vaiku. Todėl ir Lietuvos šeimos teisėje siūlytina tobulinti mediacijos principo taikymą, sprendžiant, kilusius ginčus šeimoje, tame tarpe ir santuokos nutraukimo procese, kai yra nepilnamečių vaikų, kuriame žinoma, dalyvautų vaiko teisių apsaugos institucijų atstovas. Be to siūlytina įtvirtinti galimybę tėvams patiems sudaryti Šeimos praktinį planą, kuriame būtų apibrėžti visi praktiniai klausimai, susiję su vaiko globa, priežiūra, tolesniu auklėjimu. Tai leistų tiek teisminiame procese, tiek mediacijoje, lengviau išanalizuoti, dėl ko sutuoktiniai nesutaria ir kaip turėtų būti sprendžiama problema.
In 1995, The United Nations have validated the Convention on the Rights of the Children that caused the law adoption of the Protection Basis on the Rights of the Child that was committed to improve the legal protection of children in the country inasmuch as the absence of the state created by the child rights protection mechanisms (in case of divorce there are Divisions of Child Protection in municipalities’ administrations), so this would be only a declarative commitment to protect children’s rights and interests. On that ground, there was shaped the mechanism by child protection authorities, which had enabled to develop children's rights and legitimate interests. However, the assurance of protection of child rights still remains one of the priorities of both the international community and national level. To sum up all this, the intention of this essay is to analyze whether the rights of the child protection authorities have sufficiently opportunities to ensure the rights of children in divorce cases. The study analyzes the Rights of the Child and the child's interests in divorce cases, the core of the inference in the judicial process, there are also analyzed in some countries (the United Kingdom and Sweden) rights of the child protection authority peculiarities in divorce cases and the Lithuanian Republic law that relates to the rights of the child protection authorities in the child's interests and ensuring them during the process of parents’ divorce. This analysis was helpful defining whether the child protection authorities do ensure the child's interests in divorce cases. The adoption of the Fundamentals of Protection of the Rights of the Child has extended to the framework of the child protection system, i.e. current protection of child rights in the country is implemented by the State and its institutions, local authorities and community organizations. It should be noted that the Lithuanian Civil Code, Article 3.178 clearly defines child protection authorities to participate in the judicial process, litigation over the children. Therefore, there is no exception and in divorce proceedings, in which must participate authority of Rights of the Child. Indirectly, over the process can be integrated and community-based organizations to help solve the problems in the family and divorce proceedings, and after its termination. It should be emphasized that the court hearing the divorce proceedings, in which must be involved the spokesman of the child protection department decides three key issues, i.e. the child's residence, an alimony and communication with the child by setting. There are dealing only the first two questions in the mandatory court, because the state has no mechanisms to oblige the father, who lives separately, to communicate with the child. Nevertheless, usually the court in divorce cases are dealing all these three issues. Doing analysis of the Lithuanian case law of divorce, when the authorities of rights of the child protection are involved, it is noticed that the determination of the child's interests in cases of this kind facilitates the representative’s conclusion of the Rights of the Child Protection Division. It should be noted that there are no requirements established by the law preparing the conclusion. That is why there were attempts to eliminate this gap on the 21st of June in 2002 when Lithuania adopted Resolution No. 35 by the Supreme Court and recommendations developed by the State Child Rights Protection and Adoption Service under the Ministry of Labour and Social for the municipal child protection departments, having to ensure the protection of the child's rights and legitimate interests. However, sometimes the child protection department’s representative’s finding has a lack of objectivity and is only nominally eligible. Therefore is difficult to make a court decision that is compatible the child's interests. According to the fact that the rights of the child protection department’s conclusion is not always objective and revealing the family situation, it is necessary to develop the institutions of the child rights protection system that would make it easier to ensure the child's interests during his parents’ divorce procedure. There is a tendency that the conclusions of representatives of the Rights of the Child Protection Division have a lack of objective analysis of the family situation, frequently are given in smaller towns. Over these mentioned conclusions, it is the apparent lack of information related to the child's housing, his relationship with both parents, the needs of the child. Moreover, there is no survey of the child's desires and attitudes. The complete opposite situation is analyzing the full-scale findings that are rendered to the court in big cities, where the conclusions of the child protection authority are discussing not only the child's life, living conditions, but also is doing examine of the child's relationship with his parents, analyze parental duties performed on a child's development, education, health issues. The attention is paying to the opinion of the child, his desires and attitudes. Certainly, the child's opinion is not the determining factor on that kind trials, as it is not always in line with the wishes and interests of the child. Compared to foreign countries (in the United Kingdom and Sweden) and in Lithuania children's rights protection institutions functions in the divorce proceedings, noted that the existing institutions in these countries are more actively involved in the divorce process. It is also emphasized that in those countries the divorce process as well as issues related to the child resolution is much simpler and more consistent with the child's rights and interests. It provided an alternative possibility to divorce, i. e. the mediation process, which allows to speed up the dissolution of marriage. Furthermore, in this process is actively involved child who can express his views. Improving the Lithuania’s family law on divorce direction, it is suggested to improve alternative possibility of divorce in mediation principle. Definitely, during the mediation process the representative of children's rights protection authority participates and ensures the child's interests will not be damaged. It is important to underline that into this process should also be involved the child, who can express his opinion, but only regarding the matters of his place of residence and communication order. The child age at which the survey could be carried out, would depend on his social maturity that should assess the child's rights protection agency representative having the necessary education. Solving a child alimony order issues, only the parents and the spokesman of the child's rights protection authority should take part in the process of mediation, whereas the alimony is determined by each parent available material position. In turn, the child protection authority should ensure that both parents provide the same material support to their child and assure the needs of all necessary of the child. In addition, the divorce process should accelerate the opportunity to create a practical family plan outlining all issues related to child custody, care, future upbringing. So this would allow in both the judicial process and mediation, make it easier to analyze the cause on what the spouses disagree and how the problem should be solved.
Internet: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/124437
Affiliation(s): Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas
Appears in Collections:VDU, ASU ir LEU iki / until 2018

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