|Abstract: ||Vedybų sutartyje sutuoktiniai susitarimu gali nusistatyti savo turtines teises ir pareigas santuokos metu, taip pat ją nutraukus, ar gyvenant skyrium. Įgyvendinant bendrąjį sutarties laisvės principą, sutuoktinių susitarimas turi būti išreikštas laisvanoriškumu, bendra valia ir grindžiamas šalių lygybe. Sudarydami vedybų sutartį, sutuoktiniai turi teisę savo nuožiūra nustatyti turto teisinį režimą. Tačiau dėl tokios nuostatos gali kilti įvairių nesusipratimų, kadangi susidaro nuomonė, jog sutuoktiniai visiškai laisvai savo nuožiūra gali nusistatyti turto teisinį režimą visam savo turtui. Civilinio kodekso normos, reglamentuojančios pagal sutartį nustatytą sutuoktinių turto teisinį režimą, pakankamai nėra aiškios ir suprantamos. Dėl to ateityje sutuoktiniams gali kilti ne itin teigiamos pasekmės, o taip pat galimi ir piktnaudžiavimo tokiomis sudarytomis vedybų sutartimis atvejai, kuomet gali būti pažeisti ne tik sutuoktinių, bet ir trečiųjų asmenų interesai. Naujojo Civilinio kodekso šeimos teisės normos, nors ir suteikia pakankamai plačias teises sutuoktiniams sureguliuoti tarpusavio turtinius santykius, tačiau nustato ir apribojimus. Viena iš negaliojančių vedybų sutarties sąlygų, kuri ir bus nagrinėjama šiame darbe, keičianti turto, kuris yra vieno sutuoktinio asmeninė arba jų bendroji jungtinė nuosavybė, teisinį režimą (Civilinio kodekso 3.88 ir 3.89 straipsniai), jeigu sutuoktiniai yra pasirinkę turto bendrosios jungtinės nuosavybės teisinį režimą. Šio darbo tikslas – išanalizuoti, ar pagrįstai ribojama vedybų sutarties šalių laisvė keisti sutuoktinių turto teisinį režimą Civilinio kodekso 3.105 straipsnio 2 punkto pagrindu.|
Matrimonial property regime is a statutory property regime (joint ownership), and the spouses under a contract (prenuptial and postnuptial) legal regime. Is asserts, that the marriage contract is a new institute in the Family Law of the new Lithuanian Civil Code. But this marriage contract was found still in the Second and the Third Statutes of Lithuania. Only this marriage contract was named as dowry contract. Marriage contract is agreement between spouses, which sets the matrimonial property rights and duties, in a marriage time, also after dissolution of marriage or live apart. As other civil legal contracts, the marriage contract must satisfy the requirements of the Civil Code of Lithuania. Only latter contract is different from the other civil legal commercial contracts, because of the contents of the contract specifity. An object of the marriage contract is the property. Marriage contract is very important to the spouses and also to their creditors. The spouses must conclude this contract freely, in the goodwill and grounded parties equality. In the marriage contract an urgent and important condition is agreement about property legal regime. One of the basic purpose, to make the marriage contract to the spouses, is a will legaly keep from the material damages at the divorce or ending general live, and also from the sharing of the property in the complicated trial. The spouses in the marriage contract have to entitle to provide that their assets are the personal property or joint ownership or joint partial property. If the spouses chose the joint property, they will create a so-called full community property regime. Consequently, the assets acquired in marriage the spouses, as well as before the conclusion of the marriage assets, becomes the common property of the joint. The legal regulations of the Family Law in the Lithuanian Civil Code regulate that the spouses, in the marriage contract, have right one‘s own discretion to set property legal regime. It is seems that spouses can absolutely freely to set desirable property legal regime. An article 3.105 in the Lithuanian Civil Code defines conditions, which make marriage contract invalidity. The second point of aforesaid article defines, that an invalidity condition is when changes property, which is one of the spouses personal or both of the spouses joint property, legal regime (the articles 3.88 and 3.89 in the Lithuanian Civil Code), if the spouses have choose joint property legal regime. It is means that, if made use of joint property legal regime, the spouses must admit it, how it is defined according to the law, and namely to the 3.88 – 3.89 articles of the Lithuanian Civil Code, and can not change it essence. An article 3.88 of Civil Code provides, what is joint property of the spouses and an article 3.89 provides, what is personal property of the spouses. For example, the spouses can not agree, that an intellectual and industrial property will be keep as the joint property, because an article 3.89 of the Civil Code defines, that it is the personal property of the spouse. On the other hand, the spouses must not to indicate in the marriage contract, that they would apply joint property legal regime, and they can choose alternative legal regime to the all or to the part of the property (personal or joint partial property). There is no legal practice about the matrimonial property legal regime, so it is the matter in controversy. The legal regulations in the Civil Codes of the other countries specify, that if the matrimonial make the marriage contract and there is their creditors, but they are not warn about contract or change of the contract, so it is not compulsory to the matrimonial creditors. So, if the spouses intend to change the legal property regime, they must to take into consideration all the circumstances. They must consider to each other interests, also the creditors of the spouses. The restriction of the parties freedom of the marriage contract to change of property legal regime is based, as the spouses of a marriage contract consists mostly to protect their assets from creditors. In this way, there may be abuse in a marriage contract in which the spouses, while being committed to a third party - creditor, by changing the contract of marriage property legal regime, damaged the interests of creditors, but also not implemented the principle of legitimate expectations. Said the limitation is not considered fully reliable, if there is no obligation to creditors of the spouses and between spouses is not a dispute over property. The marriage contract, which is a property contract, change can only spouses themselves, because they are the property and other proprietary rights of subjects, therefore, can only dispose of property the spouses. So it is very important to clarify what legal regulations of the institute of the marriage contract of the Lithuanian Civil Code mean, therefore, to avoid the negative consequences.