Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/120066
Type of publication: master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law (S001)
Author(s): Ražaitė, Sigita
Title: Asmenų gyvenančių nesusituokus įgyto turto teisinis režimas
Other Title: Legal regime of the cohabitants' asset
Extent: 37 p.
Date: 18-Jun-2009
Keywords: sugyventiniai;teisinis režimas;bendroji jungtinė veikla;partnerystė;cohabitation;cohabitant's asset;partnership;joint activities
Abstract: Magistrinio darbo tema – „Asmenų gyvenančių nesusituokus įgyto turto teisinis režimas“. Lietuvoje kaip ir kitose Vakarų valstybėse sparčiai daugėja porų, pasirenkančių bendrą gyvenimą neįregistravus santuokos. Bendro gyvenimo neįregistravus santuokos reguliavimas įvairių valstybių teisinėse sistemose atsirado ne kaip savitikslis įstatymų leidėjų ar teismų kūrinys, o kaip valstybės institucijų mėginimas prisitaikyti prie pačios visuomenės demografinių pokyčių ir užtikrinti silpnesniosios pusės teisių apsaugą. Darbe nagrinėjama asmenų gyvenančių nesusituokus turtinių santykių reglamentacija, atkreipiant dėmesį į teisės aktų galiojimo problemą Lietuvoje. Darbe daugiausiai remiamasi Civilinio kodekso normų ir teismų praktikos analize. Lietuvos teisės aktų ir teismų praktikos suformuota sugyventinių turtinių santykių teisinė reglamentacija lyginama su Švedijos ir Jungtinių Amerikos Valstijų teisine reglamentacija. Darbas sudarytas iš trijų dalių. Pirmoje šio darbo dalyje nagrinėjama asmenų gyvenančių nesusituokus samprata Lietuvoje ir kitose Vakarų valstybėse. Pateikiami „sugyventinių“ ir „partnerių“ apibrėžimai, jų naudojimo tikslumas, aprašomi sugyventinių statusą lemiantys bruožai. Antroje dalyje nagrinėjamos specialiosios Civilinio kodekso normos, reglamentuojančios asmenų gyvenančių nesusituokus turtinius santykius, jungtinė veiklos ir daiktinės teisės normos, kuriomis praktikoje reglamentuojami sugyventinių turtiniai santykiai. Šiame skyriuje nagrinėjamos teisės aktų galiojimo ir taikymo problemos. Trečioje dalyje analizuojamas sugyventinių turto teisinis režimas bendro gyvenimo metu, turtui taikomi disponavimo apribojimai, turto pasidalijimo taisyklės skyrybų atveju ir kitos turtinės teisės, kylančios iš sugyventinių santykių.
Subject of the work is „Legal regime of the cohabitants' asset“. The hypothesis of the work is that the cohabinant has no proprietorship to the asset which belongs and is registered by the other cohabitant‘s name. Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania states that \"the family is the basis of society and state\" and the State assumes the obligation to protect and take care for families. During recent decades cohabitation as alternative to the marriage became popular in most of Western countries. It should be noted that the legal acts which regulate the relationship between cohabitants are created as the authorities attempt to adapt to the demographic changes in society. The duty arose to the legislator to intervene the relationship in some way and to adjust the current situation that the most relevant problems of cohabitation would be resolved and the rights of the weaker part would be protected. Most countries do not give the cohabitants the same rights as to spouses and the legal acts regulates only issues related with the cohabitants asset usually, excluding some states in USA where the common-law marriage is recognized. To answer the question what is legal regime of cohabitants’ asset, the answer to the following questions is needed: who is a cohabitant, what legal acts are applied to them, what issues are regulated by those legal acts. In conclusion after the analysis of legal acts in western countries it is obvious that the term “partner” (partnership) examines the relationship between the same sex partners; and the term “cohabitant” (cohabitation) examines the unmarried relationships between a woman and a man. There is no legal definition of the term “cohabitant” in Lithuania. According to analysis of the courts’ decision the main features of cohabitants are identified: 1. The cohabitants must be a woman and a man. 2. The cohabitants must keep the principle of monogamy. The cohabitant must not enter into the relationship if he/she is married or has a registered other partnership. 3. The cohabitants must share a household with other cohabitant, which means sharing chore and expenses. 4. The cohabitants must be considered as husband and wife. 5. The minimum period of living together. It is not set in the legal acts, but according to the case law, the minimum period is 1 year. After the analysis of the Lithuanian legal acts it is concluded, that the legal acts regulate only legal issues regarding the proprietorship of cohabitants’ asset. The legal issues of cohabitants’ asset are regulated by the chapters “living together of persons not legally married (cohabitation)” (Chapter XV), “joint activities (partnership)”(Chapter LI) and general provisions of the material law of the current Civil Code of Lithuania and the rules of family law are not applied and it does not matter that the goal of cohabitation is to create the family. Provisions for cohabitant’s asset in the current Civil Code are not in force yet, because the provisions are applied just for the registered partners and partnership should be registered according to the other legal act which has never been passed. The analysis of the case law shows that the cohabitation might be regulated by the agreement of joint activities. By the agreement on joint activities (partnership) two or more persons (partners), co-operating their property, work or knowledge, undertake to act jointly for a certain goal or certain activities which do not contravene the law. The activities could be either commercial or non-commercial. There was no presumption that the provision of joint activities is applied to the cohabitants. The cohabitant has to prove that the agreement of joint activities was done and in some cases a proof that cohabitants had common household was enough to show the existent of such agreement. The biggest legal issue with the agreement of joint activities is a way the agreement was made. In the Civil Code (1964) there was not a provision that the agreement of joint activities is void if it is not in written form. The agreement might be done and confirmed by the cohabitants’ conduct. In the current Civil Code the agreement of joint activities must be in written form, otherwise it is void. Usually the written agreement of joint activities is not made between the cohabitants, so the provision of joint activities can be applied just for cohabitants who started live together before the current Civil Code came in force. The issues of cohabitants’ asset after the current Civil Code came in force are regulated by the general provisions of material law. The fact of cohabitation has no influence and cohabitants are considered as non-related persons. It must be concluded that the rights of the weaker party in such a non-marital relationship are not protected as it is in the special provisions of the current Civil Code which are not in force. This party has a duty prove that the agreement of joint activities was made or a contribution to the other cohabitants’ asset registered on his name was made. Cohabitants can have a personal and/or common partial ownership. The main rule is that cohabitant‘s asset is his/her personal ownership and disposal of such asset is not limited until it is contested in the court. It is concluded that the rights of cohabitants are less protected after the current Civil Code came in force. There are essential differences between the provision in the current Civil Code and the case law: 1) the limits of the Acts. The special chapter of current Civil Code should be applied to the particular asset which is strictly defined, while the current applied norms of joint activities and material law cover the entire cohabitants’ asset. 2) Legal regime of asset. In accordance with the case law all cohabitants’ asset remains the personal property and the disposal of such asset is not limited, until it is contested by the court’s order. According to the Civil Code the disposal of the jointly used assets is limited and in the case of the division of the cohabitants’ asset even personal asset can be transferred to another cohabitant.
Internet: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/120066
Affiliation(s): Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas
Appears in Collections:VDU, ASU ir LEU iki / until 2018

Files in This Item:
Show full item record
Export via OAI-PMH Interface in XML Formats
Export to Other Non-XML Formats


CORE Recommender

Page view(s)

10
checked on Jun 6, 2021

Download(s)

64
checked on Jun 6, 2021

Google ScholarTM

Check


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.