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Type of publication: master thesis
Field of Science: Filologija / Philology (H004)
Author(s): Rimkutė-Ganusauskienė, Aušra
Title: XIX a. galo - XX a. pradžios katalikų katekizmų terminai
Other Title: Tetms of catolic catechisms at the end of the 19th c. and beginning of the 20th c
Extent: 215 p.
Date: 17-Jun-2005
Keywords: religion;religija;terminas;term
Abstract: In these Master thesis analysis are made on the terms of religion used in Catholic catechisms ‘Moksłas Rimo Kataliku’ (1879), ‘Trumpasis Kun. Filochowskio katekizmas’ (1901), ‘Katakizmai katalikiszki’ (1903) and K. Paltarokas ‘Tikybos moksle’ (1916), which was published at the end of the 19th c. and beginning of the 20th c. Selection of sources was based on the willingness to analyse terms of religion and their change at the time, when present-day Standard Lithuanian was in a formation process. The subject of the work is relevant, because the church language of the end of the 19th c. and beginning of the 20th c., especially terms of religion (and religion lexis), are not analysed deeply. The aim of this work is to analyse the origin, types and variants of terms of religion in the mentioned Catholic catechisms. There are collected 4677 terms of religion from catechisms. ‘Moksłas Rimo Kataliku’ is found 2646 terms and variants, ‘Trumpasis Kun. Filochowskio katekizmas’ – 494, ‘Katakizmai katalikiszki’ – 575 and in priests K. Paltarokas’ ‘Tikybos mokslas’ – 962 terms and variants. Part of terms is used in several catechisms; therefore the total number of different terms of religion, which are analysed in this work, is 3273. In this work descriptive and contrastive methods were used; calculations are given, quantitative relations shown. Data are given in diagrams. The work starts with an ‘Introduction’, where is shortly introduced topic of the work, literature sources, considered what is a term of religion, also there is given a short review of religious writings since the 16th c. till beginning of the 20th c. More attention is paid for the works of commission of prayers, which acted in beginning of the 20th c. Also there is given a review of some spelling things, shortening and presentation of terms in catechisms. The chapter ‘Religijos terminų kilmė’ broadly and separately deals with origin of one-word terms and compound terms. According to the origin, one-word terms of religion are grouped into Lithuanian and non-Lithuanian ones (loanwords). Loanwords are grouped into international and non-international ones, i. e. old loanwords and barbarisms (according to the present-day standard language). Hybrid terms (one component is Lithuanian and another one – foreign) are discussed separately. Totally there are used 613 one-word terms of religion (18.7% of all terms) in catechisms. Even 69,3% one-word terms of religion, found in Catholic catechisms, are Lithuanian ones (425 terms), for example, atlaidai, dangus, Dievas, dorybė, dvasia, galybė, išganymas, palaiminimas, pamokslas, pragaras, pranašas, tikėjimas, velnias, etc. A little bit more then tenth of one-word terms of religion (12.1%) are reputed to be loanwords from Polish, for example, abrozas (pol. obrazek), blužnierstva (pol. bluźnierstwo), čyščius (pol. czyściec), dūšia (pol. dusza), etc, Byelorussian, for example, mūka (byel. мука), prietelis (byel. прыяцель), smertis (byel. смерць), sūdas (byel. суд), etc or totally from Slavonic, for example, apieka (byel. oпекa, pol. opieka), griekas (byel. грэхъ, pol. grzech), mylista (pol. miłość, byeal. міласць), viečnastis (pol. wieczność, byel. вечнасць), etc and from the Germanic, for example, podžiai TM 120 (germ. dial. podê, pôd)) languages. International terms (7.7%), for example, sakramentas, desperacija, klierikas, etc and hybrids (6.7%), for example, kunigystė, altorėlis, nečystata, etc are not popular in catechisms. Old loanwords combine just 4.2% one-word terms, for example, bažnyčia, krikštas, kryžius, kunigas, rojus, etc. The biggest part of terms of religion is compound terms. Totally there are found 2660 compound terms (81.3% of all terms). They are divided into two-word, three-word and multi-word (four-word, five-word and six-word) terms. According to the origin, terms are grouped into Lithuanian terms, foreign ones and terms, which have Lithuanian and foreign components. Terms in catechisms most often have all Lithuanian components (53.6%), for example, malda Viešpaties, šventas patepimas, švenčiausioji Trejybė, atėjimas Dvasios Švenčiausios, atleidimas nemirštamųjų nuodėmių, atmetimas pripažintos tiesos švento tikėjimo, etc. Less frequently are mixed origin complex terms, which have Lithuanian and foreign components (42.8%), for example, katalikų tikėjimas, dangaus karalystė, Traicė Švenčiausia, trečia asaba Traicės Švenčiausios, etc. Complex terms of religion with all foreign components, for example, sakramentas altoriaus, pakūtos Sakramentas, etc are the least often. In the separate part of the work ‘Religijos terminų variantai’ there are discussed variants of terms of religion. Variants are divided into phonetic and orthographic, morphological, syntactic variants of terms. Totally are discussed 898 lines of variants of terms. Most often in Catholic catechisms are phonetic and orthographic variants of terms – 677 lines (75.4% of all variant lines). Almost two-fifths phonetic and orthographic variants consist from variants of terms, which are written in capital and small letters (38.9%). Approximately one third of discussed variants of terms are with vowels (33.4%) and with consonants (27.6%). For example, dangiszkasis Tēwas MRK 346 – Dangiškasis Tėvas TM 124, įkvėpimas TM 12 – įkwepimas MRK 109, etc. In this work, orthographic variants of terms are discussed together with phonetic variants of terms, because orthographic variants are connected with phonetic ones. Syntactic variants are almost six and a half time less rare then the other variants. There are found 139 lines of syntactic variants (15.4%), which occur due to the order of complex terms, for example, amžinas giwenimas MRK 83 – giwenimas amžinas MRK 29, antras artikułas MRK 67 – artikułas antras MRK 67, Kūno ir Kraujo Sakramentas TFK 37 – Sakramentas Kuno ir Kraujo KK 30, etc. Even in beginning of the 20th c. the orthography was not steady. It was being varied. Orthography of priest K. Paltarokas’ ‘Tikybos mokslas’ essentially is the same as in nowadays. Least are found morphological variants – 82 lines (9.2%). That is less then tenth of all variants, for example, amžinas giwenimas MRK 83 – amžinasis gyvenimas TM 6, Szwencziausias Sakramentas MRK 100 – Szvencziausis Sakramentas TFK 24, KK 30, TFK 9, etc. At the end of the work there are given conclusions, list of sources and references. There is given an alphabetical index of the collected terms too. It was found, that composition and origin of terms of religion in catechisms are various. The most frequent are Lithuanian terms – 1852 terms (56.6%). More than one third of terms of religion (1039 terms (31.7%)) are hybrids or compound terms with Lithuanian and foreign origin components. About one tenth of terms used in catechisms are of the foreign origin, i. e. one-word term or all components of compound term are loanwords – 382 terms (11.7%). In catechisms ‘Moksłas Rimo Kataliku’ and ‘Katakizmai katalikiszki’ the priority is given for Lithuanian terms and their synonyms of the foreign origin are given near in brackets. Besides, sometimes loanwords are written after the conjunction or. In ‘Trumpasis Kun. Filochowskio katekizmas’ (1901) in footnotes are given equivalents (mostly Slavonic) of terms of religion, used in prayers before this catechism was published. In Catholic catechisms clearly seen the direction for Lithuanian terms. There are still many loanwords in Catechisms ‘Moksłas Rimo Kataliku’ (1879), ‘Trumpasis Kun. Filochowskio katekizmas’ (1901), ‘Katakizmai katalikiszki’ (1903). And in the catechism of priest K. Paltarokas ‘Tikybos mokslas’ (1916) was used one loanword from Germans (one-word term) and one borrowing from Slavic (component of two-word term). Terms of religion of the end of the 19th c. and beginning of the 20th c. are really worth to be analysed thoroughly. At the beginning of the 20th c. religious terminology was apace lithuanized. In Catholic catechisms was started to use nice Lithuanian terms of religion widely again. Terms of Lithuanian Catholic catechisms mainly haven’t been changed after priest’s K. Paltarokas catechism was published.
Affiliation(s): Švietimo akademija
Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas
Appears in Collections:VDU, ASU ir LEU iki / until 2018

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