|Abstract: ||Straipsnyje nagrinėjama jaunesniojo mokyklinio amžiaus mokinių (10–11 metų) savikontrolės ir fizinių gebėjimų ugdymo, taikant eksperimentinę pedagoginę programą, galimybės.
Akcentuojama, kad jaunesnysis mokyklinis amžius – tinkamas laikas pradėti ugdyti savikontrolės gebėjimus, nes šiame amžiuje (7–10 metų) dėl vaiko psichosocialinės ir moralinės raidos susiformuoja palankios fizinės ir psichinės sąlygos. Fizinis ugdymas jaunesniajame mokykliniame amžiuje lavina gebėjimą prisitaikyti prie nuolat kintančių sąlygų ir reikalavimų bei sudaro sąlygas asmeniui pažinti save, vertinti savo kūno fizinius pojūčius ir psichinę savijautą bei ugdytis savikontrolės gebėjimus. Nustatytas savikontrolės ir fizinių gebėjimų ugdymo abipusis ryšys: ugdant savikontrolės gebėjimus, eksperimentinėje grupėje buvo gauti didesni fizinių gebėjimų rezultatų pokyčiai negu kontrolinėje grupėje.|
D. P. Hallahan and J. M. Kauffman (2003) define self-control as an ability of an individual to regulate own behavior (application of strategies solving problems) and this is linked with metacognition. Skills of meta-cognition are abilities of self-control, which are mastered while learning; this embraces thoughts about what we know and how we regulate learning. There exists a mutual link between development of self-control and physical abilities: while developing self-control abilities, it is possible to better cultivate school students’ physical abilities, to teach them movements because self-control enables them to better penetrate in general cognitive strategies. On the other hand, developing children’s physical abilities, favorable conditions for improvement of school students’ self-control abilities are established. However, the influence of self-control development at primary school age has not been widely researched and few works on researches in primary learners in the context of their physical education have been published.
The goal of the research – to reveal dynamics of change in primary school learners’ physical abilities and links with development of self-control abilities during the period of experiment, applying experimental programme for self-control abilities development during lessons of physical culture.
The methods of the research: analysis of literature sources; questionnaire survey; testing; mathematical statistics: research data were analysed applying the coefficient of Cronbach Alfa, Pearson correlation analysis, Student’s t-criterion, MannWhitney U criterion. Statistical data analysis was conducted employing the statistical analysis package SPSS 19.
The methodology of the research. The method of questionnaire survey evaluated dynamics of changes in self-control abilities, whereas testing method measured changes in physical abilities. The questionnaire for self-control evaluation (targeted at assessment of physical, emotional and social control) was designed on the basis of the Lithuanian Physical Culture Programme ‘To Grow and to Strengthen’
and the Social Skills Inventory by R. E. Riggio and H. S. Friedman. Dynamics of physical abilities was measured applying the following tests: ‘sit and reach’–for flexibility, ‘standing jump’– for explosive force, ‘10x5 shuttle run’– for agility, 20 m run’ – for velocity, ‘sit up and lie down’ – for trunk force (abdominal muscle endurance), ‘Flamingo balance fitness test’-for balance. These test were selected following the Methodology for Testing of Physical Capacity of Lithuanian Inhabitants and Establishment of their Physical Condition (2007) and the Lithuanian Physical Culture Programme ‘To Grow and to Strengthen’ (2004). All the measurements were obtained twice: before and after the experiment.
The organization of the research. The pedagogical experiment was conducted in fourth forms of secondary schools in Klaipėda, Kaunas and Raseiniai in the school year of 2011–2012. The duration of the pedagogical experiment was one school year. The schools were selected following the criteria-based principle of sampling, taking into account teacher’s qualification, number of classes and agreement to participate in the experiment. The research sample initially included 203 learners but in the course of the research their number changed and the final sample consisted of 178 school students, who were divided into experimental (n = 85) and control (n = 93) groups.
The results of the research. The research revealed a positive impact of the programme for development of self-control abilities on dynamics of change in physical abilities. Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) were observed between physical abilities in experimental and control groups: long jump, agility, velocity, abdominal muscle power and endurance results between boys in E and C groups; long jump, velocity, balance, abdominal muscle power and endurance results among girls.
The norms of scales for evaluation of self-control abilities were established (Cronbach’s Alpha 0.911 (n = 37)). The self-control abilities were divided into physical (Cronbach’s Alpha 0,866 (n = 19) and psychosocial self-control (Cronbach’s Alpha 0.866 (n = 18).
It was established that self-control abilities of 10–11 year old boys and girls differ: in most cases girls show greater skills of psychosocial self-control (p < 0.01). They are able to better follow the rules of the game (p < 0.001), to keep their promises and obligations (p < 0.01), to make themselves behave as if it is pleasant (p < 0.05), to get on well with other people (p < 0.001), to evaluate well-being (p < 0.01), mood (p < 0.05), flexibility (p < 0.05) and dress up appropriately for the weather (p < 0.01). Compared to the girls, boys more frequently are able to control own fears and anxiety (p < 0.01). The least developed abilities of self-control include the ability to evaluate the pulse and to understand own physical activity.
School students, who possess greater skills of psychosocial self-control, also show better indicators of certain physical abilities. The established linear correlation links indicate relationship between the following psychosocial self-control and physical abilities: flexibility, explosive force, velocity, endurance and balance. Development of self-control abilities produces an effect on development of physical skills.
The analysis of the variables in the scale of psychosocial self-control allows concluding that school learners, who are able to control themselves and do not reveal their soreness (p < 0.01) and are able to adjust to various requirements (p < 0.05), demonstrate better balance skills; children, who are able to notice and evaluate fatigue and frequency of pulse, show better endurance skills. This is very important developing school students’ physical abilities in lessons of physical culture.