|Abstract: ||Straipsnyje aptariamas socialinis virsmas naujųjų laikų Europoje, siekiant atskleisti ryškesnius ideologinio, technologinio ir edukacinio poveikio jūriniam visuomenės mentalitetui parametrus. Analizuojama socialinio virsmo ideologinė problematika, charakterizuojama technologinio ugdymo probleminė linija, atskleidžiamos jūrininkų rengimo idėjos aukštojo mokslo kontekste. Taikyti pagrindiniai teorinio, retrospekcinio, aprašomojo tyrimo metodai: analizė, lyginimas, euristinė analizė, interpretacija, sintezė. Tyrime laikomasi visybiško asmenybės ugdymo paradigmos kaip metodologinės nuostatos, kuri pagrindžia integralios asmenybės sampratą ugdant jūrinį mentalitetą, internalizuojant istoriškai reikšmingą jūrinę kultūrą.|
The development of the maritime mentality in the society in the maritime state is characterized by the historical tradition. The educational development of the maritime mentality, partially related to Lithuania, is not consistent from the European point of view. The European and Lithuanian maritime sciences are not characterized by the social researches of the maritime mentality.
The maritime mentality is a cogitation and life style, related to the sea, and a deep social feeling based on the historical tradition, customs culture and development of the conscious vocational decisions transferred from generation to generation. This development depends on the globally ideological transformations, cultural leaps and decline of the society.
A special social transformation in Europe was spread along with the Protestantism in 16–17th centuries that has affected the ideological and technological direction of the new times. Protestantism has affected the nowadays tendencies of the higher education development in Europe. The scientific problem, by connecting the relevant ideological, technologic and educational moments of the maritime mentality, is not investigated usually. The leadership is more investigated in the social sciences related to the sea. However, the researches of the leadership are rarely connected to the valuable education of the integral personality who is psycho-socially and vocationally enriched.
The ideological and social influences of the protestant mentality are globally investigated (Lortz, 1992; Braunstein, Phan, 2001; Durkheim, 2002; Weber, 2005; Daugirdas, 2006, etc.). The development of the maritime mentality in the society of the new times is not critically investigated in regard to the technology and policy of the higher education. The maritime mentality and social transformations of its development are not secondary ones. The sea might be as a social ideology and some natural indicator of the social approach, e.g., like a place of the philosophy in the higher education.
We can find a lot of researches of the technological influence, of its educational evaluation and problems of the higher education (Habermas, 1971; Girnius, 1998; Šaulauskas, 1999; Spitzer, 2005; Sicking, 2008; Duoblienė, 2010; Pukelis & Pileičikienė, 2012, etc.).
There are a few complex researches of the maritime mentality of the society. We can find some scientific issues of the historical, sociological, mythological, geographical and pedagogical researches (Corbin, 1994; Žaromskis, 2001; Beresnevičius, 2002; Kaufmann, 2006; Schmid-Höhne, 2006; Tenzer, 2007; Lileikis, 2011, 2015). It is appropriate to discuss the moments of the social transformation in the new times, the mental relationship to the sea of the European protestant societies, the social education, technologies and preparation of seafarers.
The ideological problem of the social transformation is analyzed in the paper. The problematical line of the technological development is characterized. The ideas of the seafarers’ preparation in the higher education are revealed. The main methods such as analysis, comparison, heuristic analysis, interpretation and synthesis were used in the theoretical, retrospective and descriptive research. The universal development of the personality is a methodological principle of the research. It bases upon the conception of the integral personality by developing the maritime mentality and by internalizing the maritime culture recognized historically.
Theological tendencies of the protestant technocratism and economism have promoted the development of the maritime civilization in the new times but reduced the personalistic culture at the mental level of the society. Technological modernization of the seafarers’ preparation is as a psychological compensation by ignoring the valuable approach to the potential of the seafarer’s personal self-development regarding the development of the universal maritime mentality.
The combination between the directions of the European higher education and STCW Convention of the International Maritime Organization is based ontologically and anthropologically. The practical educational aspiration and valuable harmony of seafarers’ human and professional competencies are relevant and revealed for the improvement of the maritime mentality.