|Abstract: ||Magistro baigiamajame darbe analizuojamas Nord Stream 2 dujotiekio projekto įgyvendinimo prieštaringumas Europos Sąjungos solidarumo principui. Pirmojoje darbo dalyje, siekiant atsakyti į probleminį klausimą, analizuojama solidarumo principo raida nuo pirmųjų Bendrijos steigimo sutarčių iki Lisabonos sutarties. Iš literatūros analizės, akivaizdu, kad nėra vieningo solidarumo principo apibrėžimo. Skirtingose integracijos srityse solidarumo principas skirtingas. Antrojoje darbo dalyje, remiantis moksline literatūra ir Teisingumo Teismo praktika, analizuojamas solidarumo principo privalomumas valstybėms narėms. Išskiriamas solidarumo principo turinys, kuris toliau analizuojamas pritaikant jį Europos Sąjungos energetikos srityje. Išskirtas solidarumo principo turinys ir taikymo kriterijai, kuriais remiantis vertinamas Nord Stream 2 dujotiekio projektas.
Paskutinėje darbo dalyje yra lyginami ir analizuojami Nord Stream 2 dujotiekio projekto tikslai ir solidarumo principo kriterijai įgyvendinant Energijos Sąjungos tikslus, kuriant laisvą ir integruotą vidaus dujų rinką, kurioje būtų užtikrinama proporcinga ir nediskriminacinė konkurencija, energetinis saugumas, kuris be valstybių narių solidarumo ir bendradarbiavimo yra neįmanomas. Analizuojamas solidarumo mechanizmo privalomumas, kuris įtvirtintas Dujų direktyvoje, jį taikant Nord Stream 2 dujotiekio projektui. Pristatomos Dujų direktyvos pataisos ir jų įtaka Nord Stream 2 dujotiekio projektui. Pateikiamos rekomendacijos dėl Nord Stream 2 dujotiekio projekto atitikimo solidarumo principui. Atlikus analizę, pateikiama išvada atsakant į darbo klausimą, ar Nord Stream 2 nepažeidžia solidarumo principo. Išvada pagrindžiama argumentais iš darbe atliktos analizės.|
The principle of solidarity is one of the founding values of the European Union integration process. It is incorporated in the European Union Treaties and it is also the basis for a common energy policy for the European Union and its Member States. The 2006-2009 the Ukrainian gas crisis formed a necessity to create a common energy policy. This energy policy should be based on solidarity between the Member States.
Today, the European Union is facing a new challenge in its energy sector, namely it’s the internal gas market - the Nord Stream 2 pipeline project. This project is a challenge to the common European Union's energy objectives and the energy security between the Member States. In 2015, the European Union agreed on the Paris Agreement aims to reduce the use of fossil fuels by 2030 and 2050 and to promote renewable energy sources. The implementation of the Nord Stream 2 pipeline project will reinforce the long-term dependence of the European Union on natural gas supply from Russia and Gazprom. The German-Russian project poses major challenges for the entire common European Union energy policy, which is created and implemented based on the principle of solidarity. The implementation of this project, also, reveals a regulatory gap and gray areas in the European Union legislation on the energy policy with third countries.
To achieve the objectives of the third energy package, to protect the interests of consumers, to ensure the best prices and to create a transparent internal gas market, the European Union is calling its Member States to apply solidarity clause in their decision making. The objective of a well-functioning integrated internal gas market would become impossible to achieve if there will discriminatory and disproportionate conditions are created for the development of competition. It is, therefore, necessary to analyze the existing principle of solidarity within the European Union regarding the Nord Stream 2 pipeline project.
The novelty of this Master thesis is that energy independence and security is the desire of every state and therefore remains one of the most debatable topics and decision-making fields. The Nord Stream 2 pipeline project is a major debate not only in Europe but also worldwide. At the beginning of 2018, the project was authorized, and the construction of the pipeline in the Baltic Sea started. The European Union institutions and the Member States are discussing and seeking solutions to halt the project development and protect the European Union's energy security and freedom. Despite the current debate, there is no clear analysis of the compatibility of the Nord Stream 2 pipeline project with the principle of solidarity and the European Union legislation in the implementation of the energy policy objectives. Therefore, such an analysis is necessary to properly protect the European Union's energy security and the primacy of principles.
The aim of this paper is to analyze whether the Nord Stream 2 pipeline project violates the principle of solidarity.
The objectives of the paper:
1. To disclose the evolution of the concept of solidarity in European Union law.
2. To examine the binding nature of the principle of solidarity between the Member States.
3. To reveal the content of the principle of solidarity and the criteria for its application.
4. Compare the criteria for the principle of solidarity with the aims of Nord Stream 2 pipeline project.
Having examined the European Union’s treaties, case law of the Court of Justice and other relevant literature it can be stated that the objectives of the Nord Stream 2 pipeline project violate the principle of solidarity of the European Union. This statement is supported by these arguments:
1. In scientific literature and legislation, there is no clear and uniform criterion for defining and applying the principle of solidarity. In the first Community Treaties, the principle of solidarity is enshrined as a value and the foundation of the integration. The Treaty of Lisbon enshrines the principle of solidarity as a fully-fledged principle of the European Union law.
2. The main problem of applying the principle of solidarity is its unclear and complex legally binding implementation. Principle of solidarity, in the context of treaties of the European Union, its obligatory nature for the Member States, can be analyzed in three aspects:
• The principle of solidarity enshrined in European Union law is a positive obligation for the Member States to achieve common goals. Arguing, that the solidarity mechanism enshrined in the Treaties of the European Union creates the obligation for the Member States to fulfill their commitments and that their unilateral action should not hinder. The principle of solidarity enshrined in the Treaties creates a model of binding behavior for the Member States, which must support unilateral action by the Member States.
• At the same time, the Member States also retain a negative obligation not to raise their national interests above the objectives of the European Union, especially in the areas of European Union competence.
• Unilateral decisions taken by the Member States should be assessed analyzing whether the action taken by the Member State was proportionate to the objective pursued and the overall objective of the European Union. Also, whether it was in line with the 'spirit of solidarity'.
3. Following the analysis of scientific literature, legislation and the case law of the Court of Justice showed that the principle of solidarity in the field of energy is considered to be the common interest of the Member States, which is proportionate to the objective pursued in the specific area of European Union. In assessing the implementation of the principle of solidarity in the field of energy, and more specifically in the internal gas market, principle of solidarity is subject to the following criteria:
3.1. The decisions taken by the Member States must be based on the fundamental principles of free competition, the development of a non-discriminatory and free internal market.
3.2. The functioning of the internal gas market must be stable, safe and reliable.
4. The European Energy Union is based on solidarity between the Member States and cooperation on common energy objectives, the Nord Stream 2 pipeline project contradicts this concept because:
• In the area of competition, the Nord Stream 2 pipeline will create discriminatory and disproportionate conditions for other market participants. Gazprom, as a third-party commercial entity, will be established as the main energy corporation on the market. The relatively low Russian natural-gas prices will create disproportionate and discriminatory competition for alternative energy sources.
• The liberalization of the internal gas market will be restrained. The implementation of the Nord Stream 2 pipeline project will consolidate Russian natural gas, the import of which will account for a major share of total gas imports to the European Union, thus contradicting the objectives of the Energy Strategy to reduce fossil fuel dependency and diversification of sources. In the European Union the Nord Stream 1 and Nord Stream 2 pipelines will consolidate the supply of natural gas from one source - Gazprom.
• Energy security in the regions of Central and Eastern Europe undoubtedly will be breached. Prior to the implementation of this project, no possible assessment of the energy security breaches was carried out by the so-called "stress test", which would be an objective assessment of whether the implementation of the Nord Stream 2 pipeline project does not undermine the principle of solidarity in energy security.