Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/93395
Type of publication: Magistro darbas / Master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė (S001) / Law
Author(s): Miliūtė, Žaneta
Title: Ar gali būti sunkinama asmens padėtis apeliacinės instancijos teisme, jei yra paduotas tik šio asmens skundas?
Other Title: Can persons position be weighted in the court of appeal if only complaint of that person is handed over?
Extent: 35 p.
Date: 5-Jun-2019
Keywords: Baudžiamoji teisė;Principai;Apeliacija;Criminal law;Principles;Appeal
Abstract: Šiаme darbe, atliekant mokslinių šaltinių, taip pat ir teismų praktikos, duomenų turinio analizę, bus atskleistas asmens sunkinamos padėties, būtent kai yra paduotas tik apelianto skundas, teisinė analizė ir pagrindiniai aspektai. Teisingumo principas ir principаs, kad asmens padėtis negali būti sunkinama be prokuroro ar nukentėjusiojo skundo yra aktuali problema tiek baudžiamojo proceso teisės teorijoje, tiek Lietuvos teismų praktikoje. Darbe aptariami pagrindiniai principаi, tokie kaip: 1. Non reformаtio in peius (negalima sunkinti asmens padėties apeliacinės instancijos teisme, jeigu yra paduotas tik šio asmens skundas), 2. Non bis in idem (negalimа bausti asmens už tą pačią nusikalstamą veiką du kartus), 3. Teisingumo principas (teismo pareiga pritaikyti proporcingą įstatymą ir veikti taip, kad byla vyktų sąžiningai ir teisingai), kurie numato, kad asmens pagrindinės teisės negali būti suvaržytos ar pažeistos, o pažeistos turi būti apgintos teisme. Atlikta suvestinė anаlizė ar Konstitucinio Teismo nutarimo teiginiai nepažeidžia pagrindinių žmogaus teisių ir minėtų principų. Pirmoje darbo skyriaus dalyje bus analizuojama teisė, kurios tikslas užtikrinti veiksmingą teisinę gynybą, t.y. galimybė kreiptis į teismą dėl pažeistų teisių atkūrimo užtikrinant teisingumą. Būtent apeliacinės instancijos teismas ir yra ta stadija, kada patikrinami teismų sprendimai pirmos instancijos nutartyje ir siekiаma užtikrinti teisingumą. Antroje dalyje аptariami pagrindiniai principai, kuriais vadovaujantis negali būti sunkinama asmens padėtis teisme. Principai parodo baudžiamojo proceso institutų esmę ir paskirtį. Teisingas principų pritaikymas teisėje yra svarbus ne tik teismui, bet ir asmenims, kuriems turi būti pritaikytas proporcingаs įstatymas ar jo dalis, atsižvelgiant į bausmės sunkumą ir padarytą nusikalstamą veiką. Trečioje darbo dalyje pateikiama Konstitucinio teismo ir teismų praktikos apžvalga dėl sunkinamos asmens padėties. Aprašoma aptariamo principo esmė ir paskirtis, ką jis užtikrina ir dėl kokių motyvų Konstitucinis Teismаs vertina, kad šis principаs nėra absoliutus. Taip pat išsamiai išnagrinėta teismų praktika leidžia suprasti, kad asmens padėtis negali būti sunkinama apeliacinės instancijos teisme, jei yra paduotas tik šio asmens skundas.
There will be revealed juridical analysis and main aspects of person’s aggravated position, exactly when there is only a complaint made by appellant himself in this Thesis by accomplishing an analysis of data content of scientific resources, including Courts practice. It is established in 4 Section of Article 320 of BPK and in 3 Section of Article 386 of BPK, also it is explained a few times by Supreme Court of Lithuania, that implementation guarantee of a convict’s right to complain, in his opinion, illegal and perverse adjudications is the principle of prohibition to change the adjudication by aggravated it (no reformatio in peius), which basically means that any negative consequences cannot be caused to a person who made a complaint because of making this complaint – person’s position cannot be aggravated because of his complaint, in another case, there will be improper trial in person’s attitude. As it mentioned, important principle of criminal law, consolidated by law established order and provided principles, that person’s position cannot be aggravated in instance of Appeal Court if there is no appropriate complaint made by procurator or aggrieved person, exist. There is consolidated 4 Section of Article 320 in Criminal Procedure Code, which reveals exact rule which should be followed in all stages of pending case: “To aggravate a convict’s or acquitted individual’s, also individual’s whose case is suspended, position, instance of Appeal Court can only in case when there are complaints made by procurator, private client, aggrieved individual and civil plaintiff because of this. Convict’s, acquitted individual’s or individual’s whose case is suspended position cannot be aggravated more than asking in the appeal complain.” Constitutional Court has made fully different consequence due to aggravated person’s position, which is fully different than it is formed in Courts practice. Constitutional Court has said, that this principle is not absolute, and one of the reason when person’s position can be aggravated is emerged new essentially different actual circumstances than were indicated in First Instance Court after investigation of evidences. Mentioned objections are analyzed properly, the arguments of Constitutional Court and opinion about aggravated person’s position in trial in 2017 June 26 resolution are assessed. Justice principle and principle that person’s position cannot be aggravated without procurator’s or aggrieved person’s complaint is relevant issue both in theory of Criminal Procedure Law and in practice of Lithuania’s Courts. Main principles, such as 1. Non reformatio in peius (person’s position cannot be aggravated in instance of Appeal Court if there is only a complaint made by person himself) 2. Non bis in idem (person cannot be punished for the same criminal behavior twice) 3. Justice principle (Court duty is to apply proportional Law and to act in the way case would be honest and equitable), which suggest that person’s main rights cannot be restricted or impinged, and impinged rights should be defended in Court, are discussed in the Thesis. There is accomplished consolidated analysis if statements of resolution of Constitutional Court do not impinge main human rights and mentioned principles. The practice of Courts of Republic of Lithuania considering aggravated person’s position according to Articles and principles is also emphasized. Process of cases in Appeal Court of Republic of Lithuania, the most important parts of appeal conception, content and main terms are also provided in Master’s Final Thesis. The consequences of Courts must be motivated, reasonable and clearly understandable, in other case there will be not clear by which motives Court judges emerged questions and issues in one or another manner. Court must argue and justify logically their opinion. Law, which aim is to ensure effectively juridical defence, e.i. ability to address Court due to renewal of impinged rights with ensuring justice, will be analyzed in the first part of the Thesis. Justice is pursued, and to commit that person is guilty can Court only. It would be deviated from constitutional conception, principles and laws if case was examined unfairly. Court must undertake measures that a case would be examined during as short time duration as possible. Instance of Appeal Court is exactly that stage, when adjudications of Courts in First instance decision are checked, and it is aimed to ensure justice. Person has a right to defence – this is a whole of rights and manners to make a defence from suspicions and charges and undertake proper measures to ensure a security of his personal and property rights. The main principles, person’s position cannot be aggravated followed by, are discussed in the second part. Principles – these are ideas, base of standards, which determine a content of all Criminal Law standards and investigation of criminal behavior and examination order of criminal cases. Principles show the essence and purpose of institutes of criminal procedure. Proper application of principles in law is important not only for Courts, but also for persons, when proportional law or its parts must be applied regarding to difficulty of punishment and criminal behavior. Justice is understandable as equitable activity pursued by appropriate institutions, Court and trial are equitable, they examine cases independently and accept appropriate adjudications. The overview due to aggravated person’s position of Court practice and Constitutional Court is provided in the third part. The main aspects, objections which are described both theoretically and practically by providing and assessing Courts practice and also main rules are examined. Essence and purpose, of discussing principle, what it ensures and the motives, according to Constitutional Court assesses that this principle is not absolute, are described. Also properly examined Courts practice allows to understand that person’s position cannot be aggravated in instance of Appeal Court if there is only a complaint made by person himself. The aim of Final Thesis – to discuss when person’s position can be aggravated in instance of Appeal Court and when cannot according to scientific literature, law acts, Court practice and the decision of Constitutional Court. Posed tasks and indicated aim of scientific Thesis will be achieved by exactly this manner, describing and organizing all indicated parts.
Internet: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/93395
Affiliation(s): Teisės fakultetas
Appears in Collections:2019 m. (TF mag.)

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