Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/93372
Type of publication: Magistro darbas / Master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė (S001) / Law
Author(s): Toliušytė, Justė
Title: Ar abortų draudimo įstatymo priėmimas pažeistų moters teisę į sveiktą?
Other Title: Does the adoption of the abortions ban law will violate the women's right to health?
Extent: 37 p.
Date: 5-Jun-2019
Keywords: Abortas;Abortion;Draudimas;Ban;Sveikata;Health
Abstract: Šiuo darbu siekiama išsiaiškinti, priėmus abortų draudimo įstatymą nebūtų pažeista moters teisė į sveikatą. Darbe analizuojama: Gyvybės prenatalinėje fazėje apsaugos įstatymas ir šio įstatymo išimtys, teisės į sveikatą samprata ir jos įgyvendinimo aspektai, vaisiaus teisės į gyvybę užtikrinimo aspektai, Jungtinių Tautų Žmogaus teisių komiteto ir Žmogaus teisių tarybos pozicija dėl abortų. Norint atsakyti į klausimą, ar priėmus abortų draudimo įstatymą nebūtų pažeista moters teisė į sveikatą, darbe nagrinėjami Lietuvos teisės aktai ir šaltiniai, tarptautiniai teisės aktai, žmogaus teisių teismo bylos. Siekiant atskleisti, kaip abortų draudimo įstatymas paveikia moterų teisę į sveikatą yra analizuojama užsienio valstybių praktika. Pirmiausia yra apžvelgiamas abortų reglamentavimas Lietuvoje ir analizuojamas Gyvybės prenatalinėje fazėje apsaugos įstatymo projektas. Jame nėra numatyta galimybė nutraukti nėštumą esant vaisiaus apsigimimų rizikai ar atvejais kai moteris dėl įvairių priežasčių nėra pasirengusios nėštumui ar motinystei. Yra analizuojamos abi išimtys. Prieinama išvados, kad abi išimtys kelia abejonių dėl savo efektyvumo, dėl moterims skirtos įrodinėjimo naštos. Toliau, analizuojama moters teisė į sveikatą samprata ir jos įgyvendinimas aborto kontekste. Taip pat sprendžiama vaisiaus teisės į gyvybę problema. Pažymima, kad rūpintis žmonių sveikata yra valstybės funkcija. Moksliniai tyrimai rodo, kad priverstinis nepageidaujamas nėštumas yra pavojingesnis moters sveikatai ir gyvybei nei abortas. Yra išsiaiškinama, kad teisę į gyvybę, netaikoma negimusiam vaikui. Toliau prieinama prie šalių priėmusių abortų draudimo įstatymą, Lenkijos ir Airijos praktikos. Apžvelgiamas atvejis, kai Lenkijoje net gavusi įstatyme nurodytą dokumentą, kad leidžiama atlikti abortą negali būti tikra, kad nėštumas bus nutrauktas. Šalis nesukuria procedūrinės sistemos, leidžiančios nėščiai moteriai veiksmingai pasinaudoti teise naudotis teisėtais abortais. Airijoje ilgą laiką buvo priimti dar griežtesni įstatymai negu Lenkijoje. Kadangi gydytojams pažeidus aborto draudimo įstatymą grėsė baudžiamoji atsakomybė, jie baimindavosi gresiančių sankcijų, todėl abortų draudimo įstatymo išimtis dėl grėsmės moters gyvybei nebuvo įgyvendinama. Galiausiai analizuojamas teisės į sveikatą pažeidimas dėl diskriminacijos sveikatos priežiūros srityje. Pabrėžiama, kad būti laisva nuo diskriminacijos yra neatskiriama teisės į sveikatą dalis. Iš tarptautinės teisės institucijų ir jų teisės šaltinių daroma išvada, kad valstybės turi panaikinti diskriminaciją, skatinti moters savarankiškumą, daryti kuo geresnes sąlygas sveikatos priežiūroje. Moksliniame darbe iškelta hipotezė pasitvirtino ir buvo nustatyta, abortų draudimo įstatymas pažeidžia moters teisę į sveikatą.
The goal of this work is to investigate it would not violate the women rights to the health, if will be adopted the law of abortions bans. In this work subjects of research are: the law of protection in prenatal phase and the exceptions of this law, the conception of the right to health and its realizing aspects, security aspects of fetus right to life, attitude of United Nations Human Rights Committee and Human Rights Council towards abortions. In the case to find the answer to the question does the adoption of abortions ban law will violate the woman’s right to health, in this work it’s going to be analyzed the legislation of Lithuania and sources, international legislation, cases of European Court of Human Rights. To achieve a disclosure, how the abortion bans law effect on woman’s right to health, the practice of foreign countries would be analyzing. In the first chapter there is an overview of the abortions regulation in Lithuania and the law project of the life protection in prenatal phase. Purpose of this law is to legalize, that human’s life begins from the woman’s impregnation and the child rights must be a priority in the prenatal phase already. But the law has two exceptions. It provides, that the pregnancy can be terminated by a doctor only if the pregnancy can cause the danger to women’s life or health, or there is a suspicion based on that woman get pregnant due to criminal offenses. Besides, in this part was mentioned, that by the woman’s choice there is no predicted possibilities to terminate the pregnancy. Also, there is no possibilities to terminate the pregnancy in the case of baby’s malformation risks or in the cases, when for the various reasons woman is not ready for pregnancy or maternity. In this work both exceptions are analyzed. Here we coming to conclusions, that both exceptions are under doubts about their effectiveness. In the cases of health risk danger, sexual abuse, this must be proved by woman, and this require some time and efforts, nonetheless, she would be not sure, she will be allowed to use abortion services. This would be only discouraging for women and the illegal abortion services would be chosen by force. In the second chapter a conception of woman’s right to health and its implementation in the context of abortion is investigated. After analysis Constitutional Court of Republic of Lithuania awarded resolutions related with the right to health, there is an overview how this right is interpreted in the practice of Lithuania. The problem of fetus right to life is under solving as well. The accessibility of abortions is directly related with woman’s health. This way it is reduced the number of unplanned pregnancies, unsafe abortions and their complications, number of deaths of pregnant and newborns. Also, it is avoided some psychological diseases caused by pregnancy, e.g.: posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, self-doubt or anxiety. Scientific researches shows, that forced unwished pregnancy is more dangerous to a woman's health and life, than abortion. In lot of cases doctors affirm, it is necessary to ensure safe abortion, and if they not doing that, the woman’s life is under risk, when she seek services to unqualified doctors. It happened like that to 20 years old girl from Nigeria, which almost stay alive after trying to make illegal abortion. Humans life is protected by 2 article of European Convention on Human Right and Freedoms. But in this Convention, there is no specified what is the moment when life must be start protected. However, if rely on ECHR practice, we can see, that this article is applied only to newborn. Here we come to the conclusion that states have a duty to improve sexual and reproductive health services. It must eliminate all obstacles and to make as much as possible good conditions for women to exploit and enforce their right to health. In the third chapter there is an overview about countries, which adopted the abortion ban law and their practice. Selected countries are Poland and Ireland. In Poland abortion is banned, except three cases: pregnancy is as a result of criminal offense (rape or incest), the abortion cause danger to woman’s life or health or baby is disabled. The case of Tysiac v. Poland had showed, that even you got permission required by law for the abortion procedure, you cannot be sure for pregnancy will be terminated. In this case European Court of Human Rights had stated contravention of 8 article European Human Rights and Freedoms, because states are liable to create procedural system, which susceptible to woman effectively to use her right for legal abortions. From the case in Poland we can see, that it does not implement politics against woman’s violence, nor elimination of discrimination against women, and this goes as a result that woman’s health is suffering, besides, the rights to health as itself its more difficult to realize. In Ireland the abortion was not allowable, except cases, when it is a danger to woman’s life including possibility of suicide. 2012 in Ireland, Savita Halappanavar died, because doctors were obligated to make an abortion, but the hospital of Ireland because of sanctions fear, which menace in the case of defiance of the abortion ban law, they didn’t terminate the pregnancy. As we can see, the exception in abortion ban law, even there was a danger to woman’s life was not realized. Woman almost have no possibilities to get in use this exception. All these facts from the cases, gives us the conclusion of that criminalizing of pregnancy termination, poses a real threat to women's life, health, and their psychological condition. In the fourth chapter it is the analysis of contravention of the right to health related with discrimination in the field of health care, point of view of UN Humans Rights Committee and Human Rights Council about the abortion, minors girls security question and their sexual and reproductive rights realization, and there is a review of statistics of investigated illegal and lawful abortion. This part is accentuating, that freedom from discrimination is inseparable part of right to health. Here is analyzed International Convention about elimination of all forms discrimination based on race, which is established right to health protection, the UN Convention about elimination of all forms women’s discrimination, which obligate member states to eliminate women’s discrimination in the field of health care. In the world exist an idea about one genders inadequacy, so states must give a guarantee, that all institutions of health care will work without any discrimination against woman. By all legislations The Human Rights Committee urge to guarantee that women will not be instigated to assume illegal abortions, to ensure the right to legal abortion access, to ensure that complaints about the refusals to make an abortion will be revised on time, to refrain from any legislative reforms, that further restrict women's access to safe, legal abortion. International law institutions and their sources of law conclude, that states must eliminate discrimination, motivate women's for independence, and make the best possible conditions in the health care. In this scientific work hypothesis that abortion ban law violates women rights to health, has been confirmed.
Internet: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/93372
Affiliation(s): Teisės fakultetas
Appears in Collections:2019 m. (TF mag.)

Files in This Item:
juste_toliusyte_md.pdf963 kBAdobe PDF   Until 2024-06-05View/Open
Show full item record

Page view(s)

86
checked on Dec 8, 2019

Download(s)

10
checked on Dec 8, 2019

Google ScholarTM

Check


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.