Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/93357
Type of publication: Magistro darbas / Master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė (S001) / Law
Author(s): Matlauskaitė, Airida
Title: Ar atleidimas nuo baudžiamosios atsakomybės pagal LR BK 39-1 straipsnį užtikrina teisingumo principo įgyvendinimą?
Other Title: Does the exemption from criminal liability in accordance with article 39-1 of the criminal code of the Republic of Lithuania ensures the implementation of the principle of justice?
Extent: 42 p.
Date: 6-Jun-2019
Keywords: Teisingumo principas;The principle of justice;Atleidimas nuo baudžiamosios atsakomybės;Exemption from criminal liability;LR BK 39-1 straipsnis;Article 39-1 of the criminal rode of the Republic of Lithuania
Abstract: Magistro baigiamajame darbe siekiama nustatyti, ar atleidimas nuo baudžiamosios atsakomybės pagal Lietuvos Respublikos baudžiamojo kodekso (toliau – LR BK) 391 straipsnį užtikrina teisingumo principo įgyvendinimą. Ieškant alternatyvių sprendimų būdų teisingumui įgyvendinti bei pavojingoms ir sunkioms nusikalstamoms veikoms atskleisti, LR BK 391 straipsnyje asmuo, prisipažinęs priklausęs ar dalyvavęs organizuotos grupuotės ar nusikalstamo susivienijimo veikose ir aktyviai padėjęs atskleisti nusikalstamas veikas, gali būti atleistas nuo baudžiamosios atsakomybės. Pirmajame skyriuje apibrėžtas teisingumo principas filosofinėje plotmėje ir Lietuvos baudžiamojoje teisėje. Nustatyta, kad teisingumo principas įgyvendinamas ne tik per teisingos bausmės skyrimą. Bandant užtikrinti valstybės ir visuomenės interesus teisingumo principas aiškinamas plačiąja prasme, kurio vertybė yra platesnė nei individualus teisingumas vieno asmens atžvilgiu. Pasitelkiant teisės jurisprudenciją ir teismų praktiką ištirta, kuo pasireiškia aktyvi pagalba padedant atskleisti nusikalstamas veikas, į ką atsižvelgiama vertinant kaltinamojo duotus parodymus. Nustatyta, jog vien tik asmens pagalbos atskleisti nusikalstamas veikas nepakanka norint išvengti bausmės, nors įstatymas nenumato griežtesnių reikalavimų parodymams, teismų formuojama praktika rodo jog parodymai vertinami atidžiau ir griežčiau. Atleidimo nuo baudžiamosios atsakomybės taikymas negali būti sprendžiamas mechaniškai, privalu atsižvelgti į aplinkybes, kaltinamojo padėtį organizuotoje grupuotėje ar nusikalstamame susivienijime, įvertinti, ar asmuo pats savanoriškai sutinka bendradarbiauti su teisėsaugos institucijomis, ar tik tuomet, kai yra surinkti duomenys apie jo nusikalstamą veiką. Nustatyta bendradarbiavimo su teisėsaugos institucijomis nauda nacionaliniu ir tarptautiniu lygmeniu. Europos Sąjungos valstybės narės skatinamos bendradarbiauti kovojant su organizuotu nusikalstamumu ir pavojingų nusikalstamų veikų atskleidimu ne tik šalies viduje, bet ir tarpvalstybiniame kontekste. Jungtinių Tautų konvencijoje, Europos Sąjungos Parlamento ir Tarybos reglamente Nr. 513/2014 bei kituose tarptautiniuose teisės aktuose numatytos priemonės ir įtvirtintos nuostatos, skirtos bendradarbiavimui su teisėsaugos institucijomis skatinti. Įvertinta, kad galimybės visiškai atleisti nuo baudžiamosios atsakomybės nenumatytos. Atsižvelgiant į valstybių narių priemones bei prevenciją bendradarbiauti sutikusio kaltinamojo atžvilgiu, Lietuvos Respublikos baudžiamojo kodekso 391 straipsnio pagrindu galimybė atleisti nuo baudžiamosios atsakomybės padarius net ir labai sunkius nusikaltimus (išskyrus atvejus, kai asmuo dalyvavo tyčia nužudant) yra per didelė nuolaida kaltinamajam įgyvendinant teisingumą, siūloma atleisti nuo baudžiamosios atsakomybės BK 391 straipsnio pagrindu už nusikalstamas veikas kvalifikuojamas iki sunkių nusikaltimų.
Since the rate of organized criminality grows not only in Lithuania, but also in the world, it is the duty of the state to take measures to reduce the crime rate and to ensure justice. When searching for alternative ways to implement justice and to disclose dangerous and serious criminal offenses, Article 391 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Lithuania stipulates that a person who was involved in the activities of an organized group or criminal association and assisted actively in disclosure of criminal offenses can be exempted from the criminal liability. The novelty of this Master's thesis is in the fact that the exemption from the criminal liability under Article 391 of the Criminal Code is usually examined in terms of implementation of the principle of positiveness, and in this paper the problem of principle assurance which has not been widely studied is at issue. The aim of the research is to find out the concept of the principle of justice and its application in Lithuanian criminal law, to investigate whether the exemption from criminal liability under Article 391 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Lithuania ensures the implementation of the principle of justice. The object of the research is: application of the principle of justice in criminal law, analysis and application of Article 391 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Lithuania ensuring the implementation of the principle of justice. The research hypothesis is raised by the fact that Article 391 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Lithuania ensures the implementation of the principle of justice in part since the exemption of persons from criminal liability on the basis of the aforementioned article is possible even for serious or very serious crimes. To achieve the goal of the thesis the following tasks have been identified: 1. To define the concept of justice and its application in Lithuanian criminal law. 2. To analyse the grounds and conditions for application of Article 391 of the Criminal Code. 3. To analyse the case law of Lithuania on the basis of Article 391 of the Criminal Code, to determine the manifestation of active assistance in cooperation with law enforcement authorities and to assess the credibility of the testimony of persons exempted from criminal liability on the basis of Article 391 of the Criminal Code. 4. To identify the state interest and the public interest in disclosing criminal offenses and the benefits of cooperation with law enforcement authorities. Methods of linguistic analysis, comparative analysis, document and case analysis were chosen for the research. There are three chapters in this Master thesis: 1. The first chapter is intended to define the principle of justice in the philosophical space and in the criminal law of Lithuania. The principle of justice has no single and precise definition, it is treated as one of the areas of morality, the aim being the predominance of justice in society. In criminal law, justice is understood as the imposition of a fair punishment for a committed criminal act, but when the state chooses to implement justice not only through the imposition and realization of a punishment, it is applied in a broad sense, the value of which is wider than individual justice for a single person. 2. The second chapter is devoted to examination of the institute of criminal liability and discloses the conditions and objectives of the application of Article 391 of the Criminal Code. It has been established that the mere assistance of a person in disclosing criminal offenses is not enough to avoid punishment, and strict requirements are set for assessing the testimony of individuals. The application of the institute cannot be dealt with mechanically, the circumstances, the situation of the accused person in an organized group or a criminal organization must be taken into account. According to case-law, it was established when active assistance to law enforcement authorities should be deemed, as well as it was defined how the credibility of the testimony given manifested. 3. The third chapter is devoted to identify the state and public interest in disclosure of criminal offenses and the benefits of cooperation with law enforcement authorities, as well as the ways in which organized crime can be tackled at international level. It was established that the state is forced to solve the problems of organized crime by applying concessions to the accused persons; otherwise, it would be even more difficult to disclose dangerous criminal acts. The decisions of the Council of the European Union, regulation, encouragement to co-operate with the Member States and recommendations on how to prevent organized crime were taken into account. One of the proposed measures to assess circumstances and conditions in cooperation with law enforcement authorities concerns the exemption from criminal liability or punishment or a reduction of the penalty due to mitigating circumstances. The results of the topic discussed in this thesis show that the principle of justice in case of exemption from criminal liability based on Article 391 of the Criminal Code is ensured in part. Consideration is given to the fact that the biggest discount (exemption from criminal liability) is given in case of very serious and dangerous crimes committed by a person. Individuals being aware of the dangers of criminal offenses and of threat of liability can manipulate with law, knowing that it is possible to avoid punishment by agreeing to cooperate with law enforcement authorities. Given the circumstances and the seriousness of the criminal offenses, it is advisable not to apply the grounds for exemption from criminal liability under Article 391 of the Criminal Code when it is established that the activities of a criminal organization or an organized group are classified as very serious according to the degree and nature of the dangerousness.
Internet: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/93357
Affiliation(s): Teisės fakultetas
Appears in Collections:2019 m. (TF mag.)

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