Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/93104
Type of publication: master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law (S001)
Author(s): Zukaitė, Monika
Supervisor: Kiršienė, Julija
Title: Nepriekaištingos reputacijos kriterijų teisinio reguliavimo problematika
Other Title: Impeccable Reputation Criteria and Its Legal Regulation Problems
Extent: 45 p.
Date: 6-Jun-2019
Keywords: Nepriekaištinga reputacija;Teisininkų etika;Žmogaus teisės;Impeccable reputation;Lawyers' ethics;Human rights
Abstract: Magistro darbe nagrinėjama nepriekaištingos reputacijos nustatymo kriterijų problematika. Nepriekaištingos reputacijos reikalavimas, kaip viena iš sąlygų norimam darbui gauti ar profesinei veiklai vykdyti, pastaruoju metu tampa vis aktualesnis. Subjektų, kuriems pradėtas taikyti minėtas reikalavimas, ratas sparčiai plečiasi, dėl šios priežasties svarbu išsiaiškinti – ar Lietuvos teisinėje sistemoje nustatyti aiškūs kriterijai, asmens nepriekaištingai reputacijai įvertinti. Šio darbo objektas yra nepriekaištingos reputacijos kriterijaus samprata ir teisinis reguliavimas. Todėl pirmoje darbo dalyje aiškintasi sąvokos prasminė reikšmė tiek Lietuvos, tiek užsienio šalių teisiniame reguliavime. Taip pat, nustatytas kriterijaus taikymo vaidmuo bei subjektai. Atlikus mokslinės literatūros bei teisinių dokumentų analizę, padaryta išvada, kad priklausomai nuo konkretaus įstatymo subjektų kriterijai, apibūdinantys nepriekaištingą reputaciją, skiriasi. Kiekvienas teisės aktas sukuria savo nepriekaištingos reputacijos sampratą. Dėl bendros sampratos nebuvimo, teisinėje sistemoje trūksta visuminio požiūrio ir nuoseklumo. Antroje dalyje, įvardinami konkretūs nepriekaištingos reputacijos nustatymo kriterijai, jų taikymas ir problematika. Išanalizavus teisės aktus ir teismų praktiką prieita prie išvados, kad nepriekaištingos reputacijos nustatymo kriterijai yra neišsamūs, sudaro galimybes išvengti jų taikymo. Be to, skirtingas identiškų kriterijų, šalinančių asmens nepriekaištingą reputaciją, formulavimas, sudaro prielaidą dvigubų standartų taikymui bei gali pažeisti asmenų lygybės prieš įstatymą principą. Trečioje dalyje analizuojamas nepriekaištingos reputacijos reikalavimo bei žmogaus teisių santykis. Nustatyta, kad teisės aktams, ribojantiems asmenų teises, keliami proporcingumo, būtinumo ir teisėto tikslo reikalavimai. Atlikus Europos žmogaus teisių teismo sprendimų analizę prieita prie išvados, kad absoliutus ribojimas asmeniui gauti norimą darbą yra neproporcingas valstybės siekiamiems tikslams ir pažeidžia žmogaus teises. Taigi, darbe iškelta hipotezė – esamas teisinis reguliavimas nustato aiškius nepriekaištingos reputacijos įvertinimo kriterijus, nepasitvirtino.
This thesis presents and analyses the problematic aspects of defining impeccable reputation. The requirement to have impeccable reputation, as one of the conditions for obtaining the desired job or pursuing a professional activity, is becoming more and more relevant in recent times. 2017 – 2018 more than eight laws in Lithuania were supplemented by an impeccable reputation clause. Hence, the group of entities, falling within the scope of this clause, is growing rapidly. For this reason, it is necessary to ascertain whether the criteria, which defines impeccable reputation, provided for in the Lithuanian legal regulation are definite and unequivocal. The main purpose of the thesis is to examine what kind of problems are caused by the incorrect application of the impeccable reputation criteria. In order to achieve the main objective of this work, it is necessary to fulfil the following four tasks: 1. Analyse the concept of impeccable reputation and compare it with equivalents used in foreign countries; 2. Identify what are the subjects and objectives of the criterion; 3. Assess whether the legislation ensures the transparent application of the criterion; 4. Reveal shortcomings in the application of the impeccable reputation standard. This study employed various research methods: linguistic, historical, analysis, comparative, systematic and logical. A linguistic method was used in order to disclose the notion of impeccable reputation. A historical method revealed developments of human rights and freedoms. An analysis method was employed to examine relevant case law and scientific literature. A comparative method was used to compare the differences and similarities between the notion of impeccable reputation, its essence and application in Lithuania and other foreign countries. It also exposed the peculiarities of criteria application between legal and other professions. Systematic and logical methods were the most important in analysing and interpreting legal norms, their application and problems. The thesis is composed of three parts. The first part discloses the conception of impeccable reputation in Lithuania and foreign countries. For this purpose, paper examines what is impeccable reputation, what are the objectives and subjects of the criterion. Also, what kind of problems the lack of common approach triggers. The analysis of the scientific literature and legal documents concluded that, impeccable reputation criterion applies to individuals, whose role in the state is of paramount importance. Their actions have a direct influence on public confidence and the prestige of the profession. Therefore, these individuals are responsible not only for their personal but also for their professional reputation and for the image of the entire system. In recent years, the circle of entities of impeccable reputation has expanded rapidly, proving the growing importance of this criterion. Depending on the specific subjects of the law, the criteria for impeccable reputation differ. Every piece of legislation creates its own notion of impeccable reputation. In the absence of a common concept, the legal framework lacks comprehensive overall approach and consistency. The second part identifies specific criteria for determining impeccable reputation, its application and issues. The analysis of legislation and case-law has led to the conclusion that the criteria, for determining impeccable reputation, are incomplete and leaves possibility to avoid their application. In addition, different formulations of identical criteria constitute assumption of the double standards application, which may violate the principle of equality before the law. Moreover, the law contains conditions of an evaluative nature. The applicability of such conditions is individual in each case, which may lead to violations of the principle of equality and non-discrimination. The third part assessed the link between impeccable reputation requirement and human rights. After getting acquainted with the evolution of human rights in the legal system, it was determined that legislation, limiting the rights of individuals, must meet the requirements of proportionality, necessity and legitimate purpose. Human rights and public interest are opposing constitutional values. Defending one always restricts the other. In this case, individual has the freedom to choose a job and the state has the right to impose imperative conditions on a person who wants to get a job. The requirement for impeccable reputation is one such. The European Court of Human Rights recognizes that widespread prohibitions on professional activities undoubtedly affect individuals' private lives and therefore fall within the scope of the Convention. There are laws in Lithuania, that consolidates the irreversible loss of an impeccable reputation. Such rules prevent individuals from pursuing the desired activity for the rest of their lives, without the possibility of rehabilitation. The analysis of the judgments of the European Court of Human Rights concluded that an absolute restriction, on the person's desired work, is disproportionate to the objectives pursued by the state and violates human rights. Summarizing all the above, the initial hypothesis, that the current legal regulation provides clear criteria for the assessment of impeccable reputation, has not been confirmed. These results suggest that legal regulation must be improved in order to protect human rights.
Internet: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/93104
Appears in Collections:2019 m. (TF mag.)

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