Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/79133
Type of publication: Magistro darbas / Master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė (S001) / Law
Author(s): Lekšas, Jonas
Title: Ar žaidėjų perėjimo ribojimai Europos Sąjungoje nepažeidžia asmens teisės laisvai pasirinkti darbą?
Other Title: Does restriction of player's transition in EU violate personal rights to freely choose jobs?
Extent: 41 p.
Date: 5-Jun-2019
Keywords: Europos Sąjunga;European Union;Ribojimai;Players;Žaidėjai;Restrictions;Judėjimas;Movement
Abstract: Magistro darbe gilinamasi į sportinio reguliavimo ribojimus žaidėjams bei jų teises laisvai pasirinkti darbą Europos Sąjungoje, nes sportas Europos Sąjungoje laikomas kaip ypatingą socialinę reikšmę turinti sritis, į kurią negalima žvelgti vien tik iš ekonominės pusės. Visų pirma, analizuojamas Europos Sąjungoje įtvirtintas pamatinis laisvo darbuotojų judėjimo principas bei sportinės veiklos reguliavimo ryšys su Europos Sąjungos teise. Nagrinėjama Europos Sąjungos Teisingumo Teismo praktika, bylų sprendimai, susiję su sportinės veiklos reguliavimu. Kiekviena byla yra išsamiai išnagrinėjama, pateikiamos jų išvados, išskiriami aspektai, kurie suformavo šiandieninę tvarką sporto teisėje bei nurodomos kliūtys, trukdančios žaidėjams be išimčių įgyvendinti laisvą darbuotojų judėjimo principą Europos Sąjungoje. Išanalizavus sportinės veiklos reguliavimo ryšį su Europos Sąjungoje, pradedama gilintis į vyraujančią žaidėjų perėjimo sistemą bei jos ribojimus. Išskiriamos nuostatos, kurios pažeidžia laisvą darbuotojų judėjimo principą Europos Sąjungoje. Analizuojant praktines situacijas, atsižvelgiama į Europos Sąjungoje taikomas išimtis, nagrinėjama ar pažeidimai yra proporcingi siekiamam tikslui. Išnagrinėjus nuostatas, ieškoma alternatyvų keičiant ribojimus, kurie suteiktų daugiau teisių žaidėjams laisvai pasirinkti darbą. Galiausiai magistro darbe nagrinėjamas sportinės veiklos reguliavimas Lietuvoje bei Italijoje, atskleidžiamos nacionalinių lygų taisyklės, gilinamasi į kontraktų subtilybes bei nagrinėjami nacionaliniai teisės aktai, ginantys žaidėjų teises bei laisves, atkreipiamas dėmesys į laisvo darbuotojų judėjimo pažeidimus. Apžvelgus valstybių praktiką sportinės veiklos reguliavime, lyginami jų teisės aktų bei sportinės veiklos reguliavimo atitiktis su laisvo darbuotojų judėjimo principo nuostatomis Europos Sąjungoje. Palyginus nacionalinės teisės praktiką su sportinės veiklos reguliavimu ir laisvu darbuotojų judėjimo proncipais, autorius pateikia išvadą, jog žaidėjų perėjimo ribojimai nepažeidžia Europos Sąjungoje įtvirtinto laisvo darbuotojų judėjimo nuostatų, jei yra pateisinami proporcingumo ir sportinio intereso principais. Taip pat formuluojama išvada, jog sportininkams nepatariama ginti savo teisių nacionaliniu lygmeniu dėl lex sportiva.
In this master thesis we will be focusing on limitations of sports regulations for the players as well as their rights to freely choose jobs in The European Union. Sport in the European Union is considered to be a specific scope that has a significant social meaning and it should not be viewed upon from only an economical perspective. First of all, there is an analysis of fundamental principle of the free movement of persons that is embedded by the European Union and sport activity’s regulation connection with the European Union law. Moreover, analysis Court of Justice of the European Union practice, solutions of the cases that are connected with sport’s activity’s regulation. Following Court of Justice of the European Union conclusions which were formulated in Walrave, Dona, Bosman and Kolpak every professional athlete were assimilated as employees in the European Union. Every case is investigated and analyzed to the details with conclusions, certain aspects that formed today’s order in sport’s law with potential obstacles, that interfere with the possibilities of the player’s to implement the free movement of the persons in the European Union. However, the Court of Justice of the European Union conclusions were not binding, so after theese cases Member States and professional clubs had the autonomy for the regulation of activities of a professional sportsman. After analyzing the sport activity’s regulation connection with the European Union, we go further in to the current player’s transition system and it’s limitations. Furthermore, certain provisions are distinguished, that violate the principle of free movement/transition in the European Union. It must be mentioned that the Court of Justice of the European Union have said about sport‘s exclusivity for European Union and for that reason in sport‘s enforcement could be exceptions from free movement of persons. The author go through real examples in football players transition system. From this system author took three aspects: junior players tranistion, long term contracts, transfer windows strict rules and analyze each of them. While analyzing the practical situations, we take to the consideration the exceptions applied by the European Union; we investigate if the violations are proportional to the final purpose. After the exploration of the provisions, we are looking for alternative limitations that would provide more freedom and rights for the player’s to freely choose jobs in the European Union. However, in most of examples author goes to conclusion that the aim is proportional for limitation. After the researches of football system in the European Union, the analyze of sport activity‘s regulation in Lithuania and Italy has been done. Author reveals the rules of national leagues, go deeper in to refinement of the contracts and analyze national legislations, protecting the freedom and the rights of the players and emphasize violations of free movement of the persons. Comparing Italy with Lithuania reveals their different legislation in sports law. Looking for both of the systems the interviews were done also with both sides: with the professional basketball player in Italy and with Lithuanian Basketball Federation representative. One of the main difference of these two countries is that in Italy regulation of sport practise is a subject to labour law while in Lithuania the professional sportsman rights goes through civil law. After comparing these two different systems and counting pluses and minuses, author is based on the hypothesis that the sporting activity regulation of labour law ensure a better legal protection and fits more for professional athlete than regulation of civil law. Also author do not recommend for pofessional sportsman to fight for his rights at a national court because sport‘s law is specific and includes international law rules. Finally, after investigating the practical side of the sport activity’s regulations in both countries, we are comparing and contrasting the two legislations of Italy and Lithuania, sports regulating system and trying to find compatibility with the free movement of person’s in the European Union. Author take in the research discussed aspects and put them in to the table. Then all the aspects is compared and after that there is submitted clarification of all of specific situations and also formulating the conclusion. Most of the situations violate the fundamental European Union principle of free movement of persons, but they are explained for proportional principle taking account to the final purpose. Also there are situations where the Court of Justice of the European Union has not said their conclusions and there are no practise so there are some questions about principle of free movement in sport restrictions eligibility. In the conclusion, the author comes to a statement that limitations of the transitions in the European Union do not violate the free movement regulations if the act is justified with proportionality and sport interest principles and furthermore, it is not recommended for the players to fight for their rights at a national level for the lex sportiva.
Internet: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/79133
Affiliation(s): Teisės fakultetas
Appears in Collections:2019 m. (TF mag.)

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