Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/62371
Type of publication: Magistro darbas / Master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė (S001) / Law
Author(s): Giedraitis, Lukas
Title: „Prosumerio“ teisinės problemos siekiant atsinaujinančios energijos išteklių plėtros Europos Sąjungoje
Other Title: "Prosumer" legal problems for renewable energy development in European Union
Extent: 40 p.
Date: 6-Jun-2019
Keywords: Prosumeris;Prosumer;Europos Sąjunga;European Union;Energijos ištekliai;Energy development
Abstract: Magistro darbo tikslas – apžvelgti, kaip Europos Sąjunga ir jos Šalys Narės skatina vartotojus tapti aktyviais gamintojais, kokias teises kaip vartotojai prosumeriai gali išlaikyti ir kokių teisių reikia siekiant pritraukti daugiau vartotojų tapti prosumeriais. Apžvelgiant Europos Sąjungos direktyvas, Šalių Narių sėkmingus ir nesėkmingus pavyzdžius siekiant pritraukti vartotojus gaminti elektros energiją, pastebimas netolygi kryptis siekti 2030 m. Europos Sąjungos užsibrėžto elektros energijos gaminimo. Išnagrinėjus, kokių veiksmų Europos Sąjunga imasi kurdama palankias direktyvas vartotojams, pastebima, kad pavienės Šalys Narės dažniau imasi iniciatyvos nepriklausomai nuo bendro skatinimo visoms Šalims plėsti elektros gaminimo galimybes. Taip yra dėl kelių faktorių - netolygios praktikos tarp Šalių Narių, garantijų užtikrinimo trūkumo, informacijos stokos bei pasitikėjimo trūkumo dėl galimybės realizuoti pagamintą elektros energiją ir paramos formų nebuvimo. Europos Komisija kuria naujus pasiūlymus kaip stiprinti Europos Sąjungos elektros nepriklausomumą. Europos Komisija aiškiai pripažįsta, kad svarbu sukurti „energetikos sąjunga, kurioje daugiausia dėmesio skiriama piliečiams, kurie prisiima atsakomybę už energetikos sektoriaus pertvarkymą, naudojasi naujų technologijų teikiamais privalumais, kad už suvartotą energiją galėtų mokėti mažiau, ir yra aktyvūs rinkos dalyviai, o tapę pažeidžiamais vartotojais yra apsaugoti“ . Darbe yra pateikiamos rekomendacijos, kaip Šalys Narės ir Europos Sąjunga galėtų pagerinti prosumerių teisinę padėtį, kokių garantijų tokiems prosumeriams reikia, pateikiama pasiūlymų, kaip galima skatinti informacijos sklaidą, taip pritraukiant daugiau vartotojų tapti prosumeriais. Tokie pasiūlymai gali būti naudingi gerinant prosumerių teisinę padėtį ne tik Šalyse Narėse, bet ir Europos Sąjungos lygiu.
The aim of this master thesis is to look over how European Union and Member States encourages consumers to become active producers of electricity, what rights do prosumers have as consumers and how can prosumers save consumers rights, what rights do consumers need to be encouraged to become prosumers. Upon reviewing European Union directives, Member States successful and unsuccessful examples in trying to encourage consumers to start producing electricity there can be seen uneven direction towards 2030 European Union plan to reach its energy produce goals. After examining what actions European Union take while addressing new directives there can be seen that individual Member States themselves act to encourage consumers to start producing electricity as opposed to collective encouragement of all Member States to act towards this goal. This is result of few important factors like lack of guaranties for new and existing prosumers, lack of information, lack of trust in right to sell electricity that has been produced by prosumers and lack of funding schemes for community and individual projects. Prosumers encounter unique hurdles that discourage participation in market or even start to adopt green energy in the first place. Hurdles that disable prosumers do not stop at national level but are part of whole European Union core. As prosumer group does not have clear framework that enables prosumers to be active market actors and lacks ability to ensure prosumers and investors to invest in green energy production. Few existing barriers that discourage prosumers to start producing electricity are: Uneven framework across European countries as Member States do not have widely accepted regulations towards consumers producing energy and selling it in market; Upon becoming prosumer people lose their rights as consumers; Prosumers are obliged to adhere same laws as regular old market actors which makes prosumers to be unattractive investment option; New prosumers have to risk same as old market actors even though prosumers are weaker; Prosumers lack information points and general information on how to be efficient and how Member States can help them to establish self-energy generation. In this thesis there are proposals on how Member States and European Union could improve rights of prosumers as consumers what guaranties do prosumers need and how Member States can improve their information sources to involve more consumers towards becoming new prosumers. These proposals could be useful toward improving prosumers rights not only in individual Member States but whole European union. The European Commission is developing legislative proposals to pave new ways towards European energy union. While developing their strategy, European Commission explicitly acknowledged that “citizens should be at its core, where they take ownership of the energy transition, benefit from new technologies to reduce their energy bills, participate actively in the market, and where vulnerable consumers are protected.” There are many ways for citizens, small businesses and communities to contribute to the energy transition, actively participating in different aspects of the energy market to become true prosumers. Citizens are no longer resigned to the role of passive consumers, but have potential to be energy producers, particularly through self-generation of renewable energy, storage, energy conservation, and participation in demand response. Through their active participation in the energy market, energy citizens can help European Union to reach its climate and energy objectives. They can also save money on their energy bills and help to keep electrical grid in balance, boost local economic growth and innovation, drive local enthusiasm for energy transition. However, to allow consumers, particularly households and small businesses to participate fully in the energy system an appropriate framework is needed . To enable new consumer/producer group to be attractive there is need to establish strong definition on what does it mean to be energy producer and consumer at the same time. European Union and European Commission with help of Member States need to work towards creating regulations that enable prosumers, these regulations include soft legislative rights for investors to gain trust and be sure that their investments in prosumers are safe and could bring profits. Also, these new actors in energy market need to be able to sell their electricity as prosumers are afraid of regular strong market actors like big companies that are selling and producing electricity more efficiently and cheaply. Member States and their National Regulatory Authorities need to create monetary systems that reward and encourage prosumers to create electricity. Electricity produced locally can ensure grid safety and security from outside factors like change in climate, terrorism and everchanging political landscape. Enabling prosumers not only helps to create secure electrical grid in European Union but also helps communities by lowering costs of electricity and granting access to remote zones.
Internet: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/62371
Affiliation(s): Teisės fakultetas
Appears in Collections:2019 m. (TF mag.)

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