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Type of publication: master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law (S001)
Author(s): Kreivėnaitė, Gintarė
Supervisor: Žižienė, Simona
Title: Ar formalus amžiaus nuo kurio kyla baudžiamoji atsakomybė kriterijus atitinka nepilnamečių baudžiamosios atsakomybės tikslus ?
Other Title: Does the formal age from which the criminal liability arises cryteria, meets the purposes of minors criminal liability ?
Extent: 33 p.
Date: 7-Jun-2018
Event: Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas. Teisės fakultetas
Keywords: Amžius;Baudžiamoji atsakomybė;Nepilnamečiai;Age;Criminal liability;Minors
Abstract: Nepilnamečių baudžiamosios atsakomybės amžiaus ribos ir jų atitikimas baudžiamosios atsakomybės tikslams – tai tema reikalaujanti valstybių, įstatymų leidžiamosios valdžios, bei baudžiamosios justicijos atstovų didelio dėmesio. Europoje vyraujančios tendencijos rodo, jog nepilnamečių nusikalstamumas yra didelis. Remiantis Lietuvos statistikos departamento 2018 m. duomenimis 2016 m. 4185 nepilnametis lietuvoje buvo pristatytas į policijos įstaigą dėl nusikalstamų veiksmų, o 2017 m. 3552 nepilnamečiai.1 Akivaizdu, jog skaičiai nemaži. Nepilnamečiai dėl fiziologinių priežasčių, taip pat ir dėl psichikos savybių yra išskirtini subjektai kylant baudžiamajai atsakomybei. Jų amžius neretai nėra atitinkantis jų subrendimo laipsnio, todėl tam tikrais atvejais vietoj taikomų baudžiamosios teisės poveikio priemonių nepilnamečiai nubaudžiami, dėl ko nepakankamai užkertamas kelias naujoms veikoms. Magistro darbe siekiama atskleisti kokiais kriterijais vadovaujantis valstybėse nustatytos būtent tokios amžiaus ribos, kas lėmė tokį reglamentavimą tiek Lietuvoje, Europos valstybėse. Pagrindinis dėmesys skiriamas nepilnamečių baudžiamosios atsakomybės sampratai, teismų praktikos pagalba atsikleidžiami kriterijai, kurie leistų daryti pagrįstas išvadas, apie asmens subrendimą pagal jo amžių kai keliamas baudžiamosios atsakomybės klausimas. Analizuojant norima išsiaiškinti, jog formalus amžiaus nuo kurio kyla baudžiamoji atsakomybė kriterijus neatitinka nepilnamečių baudžiamosios atsakomybės tikslų, dėl skirtingos amžiaus ribos apibrėžimo nacionaliniuose bei tarptautiniuose dokumentuose. Taipogi dėl to, jog susiduriama su metodikos bei specialistų deficito sunkumais, kurie padėtų įvertinti nepilnamečių socialinę brandą.
The age limits of juvenile criminal responsibility and their relevance to criminal liability are a matter of relevance to the exclusive attention of the world's nations, their legislators, law enforcement agencies and criminal law professionals who have been demanding in recent decades. The level of juvenile delinquency in many countries is quite high, so this problem is relevant in Lithuania and in other countries. According to the Statistics Department of Lithuania in 2016 years 4185 minors were introduced to the police in Lithuania due to criminal acts, and in 2017, 3552 minors. Obviously, the numbers are significant. Juveniles are the exclusive subjects of criminal justice due to their physical and mental qualities. Their age often does not match their maturity, and in some cases minors are punished instead of penal sanctions, which does not sufficiently prevent them from doing a new crimes. Juvenile criminal liability is exclusive. This distinction is linked to the full range of their age, physical and mental characteristics, or, in some cases, disorders that cause the criminal liability of juveniles to be adversely affected, which does not meet the objectives of the criminal liability.The main attention is connected to juvenile criminal liability analysis, assumptions of criminal liability and international standards. The aim of the Master's thesis is to reveal what criterias led the states to set such age limit, The main focus is on the concept of juvenile criminal responsibility, with the help of case law to find out criteria that will allow making reasonable judgments about the person's adequate maturity in compliance with his age, allowing national and international standards to decide on juvenile criminal responsibility. The first part of the work introduces and analyzes legislation regulating the established age limit of criminal liability. It is analyzed and compared in the countries of Lithuania and the European Union, why the different regulation exists, it is clear which criteria are used to determine the age limits, based on national and international legislation, scientific articles and books. In the second part of the work the juvenile social maturity is explored, in support of case law, the main concepts, criteria, which would allow to make reasonable conclusions about the person's adequate maturity and correspondence to his age, are explained. Attention is also drawn to the factors that determine one or another behavior of minors, which is accompanied by criminal deeds. The third part of the paper analyzes the objectives of criminal responsibility. The concept of juvenile criminal justice is revealed. This part, among other things, reveals the connection between limited courtesy and social intolerance. So according to my research it can be argued that the international rules that can be applied to young people who violate the law, is targeted not to the public interest, but the welfare of young 5 people, the documents do not set the same age limits, do not establish a single concept of a minor, but their provisions call for a change of attitude and an increase the age limit, from which the person is responsible for his criminal behavior. The analysis of the national legislation distinguishes between the following main points: (a) the setting of different minimum age limits from which criminal liability can be assessed; b) different institutional guidelines for resocialisation of juvenile offenders; c) Different use of the concept of a juvenile. Also the minimum age for criminal liability set in Lithuania and other foreign countries is between 10 and 15 years old. Such differences in the minimum age range show the characteristics of regulating juvenile criminal justice. In countries, the minimum age limit is associated with the maturity of a person. Some states distinguish the surrounding environment, and some of them appreciate the psychological and physiological aspects. When setting boundaries, the state firmly believes that the level of development of a person subject to criminal prosecution is such that bans as social requirements can be absorbed, which means that minors who have reached the age of the relevant age are able to manage their behavior. Confirmation of a different age is associated with the history, traditions and other aspects of different countries. So the formal age of the prosecution criteria does not meet the objectives of criminal prosecution of minors, since the age limit in particular in international documents is the opposite of the boundary defined by national law. Secondly, specialists in Lithuania acknowledge that the courts are faced with major difficulties in assessing social maturity, methodology and specialists deficits, which would help to assess the social maturity of the young adult. For this reason, in some cases, inappropriate punishment is chosen in solving the issue of juvenile criminal liability.
Appears in Collections:2018 m. (TF mag.)

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