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Type of publication: master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law (S001)
Author(s): Gedmintaitė, Ieva
Supervisor: Cibulskaitė - Veršinskienė, Giedrė
Title: Ar socialiai atsakingos tarptautinės įmonės nepažeidžia žmogaus teisių?
Other Title: Whether socially responsible international coorporations violate human rights?
Extent: 44 p.
Date: 7-Jun-2018
Event: Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas. Teisės fakultetas
Keywords: Tarptautinės įmonės;Žmogaus teisės;Aplinkosaugos teisė;International company;Human rights;Environmental law
Abstract: Magistro baigiamajame darbe norima atsakyti į klausimą, ar socialiai atsakingos tarptautinės įmonės nepažeidžia žmogaus teisių? Tyrimo objektas – žmogaus bei aplinkosaugos teisės tarptautinėse įmonėse: kada ir kaip jos pažeidžiamos, kokie įstatymai turėtų užtikrinti saugią aplinką darbuotojams, bei aplinkosaugos taisyklių laikymąsi, koks padalinio valstybėje teisinis reglamentavimas ir įstatymų taikymas praktikoje. Tikslui pasiekti keliami tokie uždaviniai: išanalizuoti pagrindinę žmogaus teisių bei aplinkosaugos pažeidimų tarptautinėse įmonėse, problematiką; ištirti, kokie yra padaromi Žmogaus teisių bei aplinkosaugos pažeidimai skirtingose tarptautinėse įmonėse, turinčiose padalinius skirtingose šalyse; įvertinti tarptautinių įstatymų bei bendrų visoms šalims įstatymų bei susitarimų laikymąsi. Tyrimo hipotezė, kurią bus bandoma įrodyti arba paneigti gautais mokslinio darbo rezultatais: Tarptautinėse įmonėse, kurios turi savo padalinius skirtingose šalyse, žmogaus teisių bei aplinkosaugos įstatymų laikomasi nevienodai: vienur darbas atliekamas pagal įstatymus, jų nepažeidžiant, kitur siekiant didesnio pelno įstatymai yra pažeidžiami, nukenčia žmogus (darbuotojas) bei gamta. Tyrime buvo taikyti dokumentų analizės, lyginamasis bei sisteminis metodai. Tarptautinių įmonių padaromi žmogaus teisių bei aplinkosaugos pažeidimai aptinkami kitose šalyse įsteigtuose įmonių padaliniuose. Tačiau stinga susistemintų įstatymų, teisinio reglamentavimo ir teisinių organų, kurie užkirstų kelią šiems tarptautinių įmonių pažeidimams padaliniuose. Todėl magistro darbe pateikta rekomendacija - priimti vieną bendrą tarptautinių įmonių įstatymą, kuris būtų reglamentuotai taikomas visame pasaulyje bei įsteigti vieną teisinį organą, kuris būtų atsakingas už šio įstatymo įgyvendinimą bei vykdymą visame pasaulyje. Už padaromus žmogaus teisių bei aplinkosaugos pažeidimus tarptautinėms įmonėms griežtinti sankcijas bei visada be išimčių viešinti šiuos pažeidimus, jog būtų informuoti potencialūs klientai bei visuomenė.
Master’s thesis aims to answer the question of whether Socially Responsible International Coorporations Violate Human Rights? Object of the study - Human and Environmental Rights in Socially Responsible International Coorporations: when and how they are violated, what Laws should ensure a safe environment for employees, how they comply with Environmental Regulations and what Legal Regulation and practical application Laws apply in countries To achieve the objective, the following tasks are set: to disclose the main issues of Human Rights and environmental violations in International Companies; to analyze the Human Rights and environmental violations committed by different International Companies and their branches in different countries; assess compliance with International and Common Laws and agreements with all countries. Hypothesis of the study, which will be attempted to prove or disprove based on the results of the study: International Coorporations that have their own units in different countries, Human Rights and Environmental Laws are treated differently. Work is carried out in accordance with the Law, without prejudice to them, but in other countries companies violate Laws, Human Rights and nature is harmed. Method of document analysis: analysis, comparative and systematic methods were applied in the study. In assessing and seeking a comprehensive definition of socially responsible multinational enterprises, there was no definitive concept that would combine all theories. The general principle of the International Company's activity is formulated as follows: Socially Responsible International Coorporations cover all activities and impacts that are being carried out, both for society as a whole and for the whole society. A discretion is given to the assistance of the Human Rights court in shaping the practice of International Company liability in accordance with International Law. Socially Responsible International Coorporations that use their work and environmental vulnerabilities establish their branches, subsidiaries and associates whose activities are not so strictly regulated as the company's headquarters located in a legally stable country. Institutions of such companies often commit such violations: labor, exploitation of children, violation of a safe working environment, indemnification of forced estates, pollution of water, air and soil, and other Human Rights and Environmental violations. These violations are most often are committed by powerful, financially strong International Coorporations, whose main goal is profit, not dignity and good reputation. Thus, states are encouraged to regulate National Laws while maintaining a balance between Private and Public interests. The analysis of the Law revealed that it lacks of legal Regulation which would prevent Socially Responsible International Coorporations from violating Human and Environmental Rights. The practice of courts in relation to the actions of Socially Responsible International Coorporations in their units is very poor, in that many events are not open because companies do not want to undermine their good reputation. Thus, the case Law has not formed a general consensus, there is no legal stability and integrity. Workers have the right to a safe working place, lawfully regulated working hours, as well as to collective bargaining and strike. If the negotiations can not be reached, the employee will always be entitled to receive the benefits due to the legal path, which is not useful to the company, which may well affect its reputation, which in some cases is more important than the cash benefits. Not all International Companies violate the Law. There are many examples where International Companies established a unit in the country that contributes to the country's economic growth, increase the number of jobs and etc. In addition “Fairtrade“ encourages International Companies and Local Companies to take workers rights and freedoms into account, and do not prevent the Company from gaining profit, helping to remain competitive on the market. Also there are many Socially Responsible International Coorporations in Lithuania. Attempts are being made to attract foreign investors to Lithuania in an attempt to create new jobs in Lithuania. The foreign investment development agency "Invest in Lithuania" is engaged in this. It provides tax incentives to International Companies. In Lithuania, Socially Responsible International Coorporations are faced with a problem of transparency, with little or no significant violations, indicating that Lithuanian Laws do not leave any loopholes for Human Rights and Environmental violations. In addition, there is a legal framework that respects International Companies. Human Rights and Environmental violations committed by International Companies are detected in companies established in other countries. However, there is a lack of systematic legislation, Legal Regulation and Legal Bodies that would prevent these International Companies from violating the divisions. Suggestion put forward in the thesis: adoption of a single International Company Law that is regulated globally and establish a single major legal body responsible for implementing and enforcing this Law around the world. For violations of Human Rights and Environmental violations, International Companies need to increase sanctions and always publicize these violations in the public space without exception, so that everyone can find infringements committed by a particular company.
Appears in Collections:2018 m. (TF mag.)

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