Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/36594
Type of publication: master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law (S001)
Author(s): Kmieliauskaitė, Ieva
Supervisor: Šibkovas, Olegas
Title: Smurto artimoje aplinkoje pavojingumo laipsnio nustatymas, atsižvelgiant į provokuojantį nukentėjusio asmens elgesį
Other Title: The degree of severity in the domestic violence is determined by taking into account the provocative actions of the victim
Extent: 40 p.
Date: 7-Jun-2018
Event: Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas. Teisės fakultetas
Keywords: Smurtas artimoje aplinkoje;Provokuojantis elgesys;Auka;Domestic violence;Provocative actions;Victim
Abstract: Šio magistro baigiamojo darbo tikslas – išanalizuoti smurto artimoje aplinkoje pavojingumo laipsnio nustatymą, atsižvelgiant į provokuojantį nukentėjusio asmens elgesį, pagrindžiant darbe iškeltą hipotezę, jog pagrindinis kriterijus, kuriuo būtų užtikrinamas smurto artimoje aplinkoje pavojingumo laipsnio nustatymas ir, kuris lemtų kaltinamajam taikomas sankcijas, atsižvelgiant į provokuojantį nukentėjusio asmens elgesį, Lietuvos Respublikos įstatymuose nėra nustatytas. Atsižvelgiant į iškeltus uždavinius darbas suskirstytas į tris pagrindines dalis: Pirmojoje dalyje išanalizuota smurto artimoje aplinkoje samprata bei atskiros rūšys, taip pat aptartas nukentėjusiojo nuo smurto artimoje aplinkoje statusas, atsižvelgiant į provokuojantį nukentėjusio asmens elgesį. Smurtas daugelyje pasaulio šalių laikomas vienu pagrindinių žmogaus teisų pažeidimų, kadangi sukelia įvairias neigiamas pasekmes. Beveik visais atvejais smurto samprata asocijuojasi su grėsme, kylančia žmogaus gyvybei ar sveikatai. Smurtas dažniausiai suvokiamas kaip fizinis ar seksualinis, tačiau skiriamos ir psichologinio bei ekonominio smurto rūšys. Antrojoje darbo dalyje analizuotas nusikalstamos veikos pavojingumo laipsnis, esant smurtui artimoje aplinkoje, atskleistas vienas iš nusikalstamos veikos požymių – pavojingumas. Išanalizavus mokslinės literatūros ir teismų praktikos atvejus, teigtina, jog kiekviena veika visuomenėje laikoma pavojinga, jei kelia pavojų (kėsinasi) kokiai nors vertybei. Savo ruožtu įstatymų leidėjas, kriminalizuodamas veiką, nori apsaugoti ne ką kitą, o tam tikrą vertybę. Apibendrinama tiek Lietuvos, tiek užsienio teisinėje literatūroje pateikta pavojingumo samprata bei nusikalstamos veikos pavojingumo pobūdis bei laipsnis. Taip pat, kalbama apie priešingumą teisei, kuris suprantamas kaip teisinė pavojingumo išraiška baudžiamajame įstatyme ir tai reiškia, kad įvykdita veika laikoma nusikaltimu, tuo atveju, kai jos požymiai sutampa su baudžiamajame įstatyme reziumuojamais nusikaltimo sudėties požymiais. Trečiojoje darbo dalyje atlikta provokuojančio ir rizikingo nukentėjusiojo elgesio atsiradimo analizė,analizuojant tiek teisinę mokslinę literatūrą, tiek teismų praktikos atvejus. Pastebėta, kad, provokuojantis ir rizikingas nukentėjusiojo elgesys gali būti ir tariamas, kuomet, dažniausiai vyrai, tariamai bandydami sušvelninti jiems skiriamą bausmę, pateikia parodymus, jog moteris juos provokavo. Dauguma nukentėjusiųjų ir kaltinamųjų nusikalstamų veikų padarymo metu būna neblaivūs, todėl sunku nustatyti, kuris buvo konflikto iniciatorius, kuris pirmas atliko priešingus teisei veiksmus. Provokuojantis ir rizikingas elgesys taip pat pasireiškia, kada 4 nukentėjusysis psichologiškai smurtauja, savo konkrečiais veiksmais ar elgesiu išprovokuoja kitą asmenį, t.y. kaltinamąjį smurto panaudojimui. Atsakant į darbe iškeltą tikslą ir hipotezę, galima teigti, jog pagrindinis kriterijus, kuriuo būtų užtikrinamas smurto artimoje aplinkoje pavojingumo laipsnio nustatymas ir, kuris lemtų kaltinamajam taikomas sankcijas, atsižvelgiant į provokuojantį nukentėjusio asmens elgesį, Lietuvos Respublikos įstatymuose nėra nustatytas, kadangi įstatymai nenurodo konkrečių pavojingumo laipsnio nustatymo kriterijų, pagal kuriuos būtų galima tiksliau nustatyti ir įvertinti pavojingumo laipsnį, siekiant palengvinti tiek ikiteisminio tyrimo pareigūnų, tiek teismų darbą.
The aim of this final Master’s work is to analyse gravity of violence degree in a family surroundings, regarding provocative behaviour of an aggrieved and to support the hypothesis of this work that the major criteria for determining gravity of violence degree in a family surroundings that could impact on the sanctions applied to the accused whose behaviour was provocative, are not defined in Lithuanian Republic law. The object of the research: to determine gravity of violence degree in a family surroundings in regard to legal regulations applied for provocative behaviour of the aggrieved. The main purpose of this master thesis was: 1. To analyse legal aspects of violence in a family surroundings. 2. To analyse the determination of gravity of violence backing on court practice on violence in a family surroundings. 3. To analyse assumptions for provocative behaviour of the aggrieved. Bearing in mind the objectives set, the work is divided into three major parts: The first part provides the analysis of the concept of violence in a family surroundings, the types of such violence and the status of the aggrieved in a family surroundings, regarding the provocative behaviour of the aggrieved. Violence is identified as one of the most serious violations of human rights - as it causes various negative consequences. Violence in most cases is associated with gravity to human’s life, gravity to physical and mental health. Violence is defined as physical or sexual, however, there exist psychological and economical ones. Psychological violence is the type of violence that is the least spoken about - as its consequences are the most difficult to prove and measure, however, these consequences have negative impact on humans’ psychic health, the way of thinking, emotional state and further outlooks to life. The second part presents the analysis of gravity of violence degree determination in a family surroundings, one of the characteristic features of criminal actions is disclosed – gravity. The behaviour of an aggrieved and the motives of an accused are analysed in relation with the actions of an aggrieved. Having performed the analysis of scientific literature and court practices, it could be assumed that every criminal act causes gravity to the society in case if this act threatens to any value 6 and legislation from its own side wants to safeguard this value. Summarizing both definitions on the concept of gravity and nature and degree of criminal actions in Lithuanian and foreign literature resources, it could be alleged that gravity of a criminal action means threatening to state governed values. Two indexes stand for criminal actions gravity: the nature of gravity and the degree of gravity. Gravity is an objective characteristics of a criminal action that does not depend neither on legislation nor on intentions of persons applying legal regulations. Meanwhile, contradiction to the law is realised as legal gravity in the criminal law and that means that the actions done are defined as criminal actions as they coincide with the actions described in the criminal law. The third part provides analysis of provocative and risky behaviour of the aggrieved; legal literature and court practices are analysed. Not every act of violence in a family surroundings could be identified as the accused’s fault only. The aggrieved could also be accused for domestic conflicts between two parties and in this way the sanctions to the accused are less severe and criminal law articles could be applied to an aggrieved as well. The major criterion that would impact the sanctions to an aggrieved in regard to real gravity to the society caused by him, has not be determined yet. It is evident that provocative and risky behaviour of an accused could be imagined, as in most of such cases, men usually seeking to ease their sentences, blame woman for provoking. People usually perform acts of violence affected by alcohol ant it becomes complicated to establish who was the initiator of a conflict, who was the first to start illegal actions. Provoking and risky behaviour manifests when an aggrieved psychologically abuses the other person that is the one who is accused for violence. Responding to the work hypothesis, it could be alleged that the major criteria assuring the determination of gravity of violence degree in a family surroundings and the criteria that could impact sanctions to an accused in regard to his/her provocative behaviour, are not established in Lithuanian Republic law, as the law does not indicate definite criteria for gravity of violence degree determination making police officers and courts work proceedings easier. Recommendations in regard to the major criteria, firstly - to determine whether palliative circumstances could be applied due to provocative behaviour of the aggrieved, secondly, it is recommended to pay attention to thorough pre-trial investigation seeking to obtain as much data as possible to evidence not only the fault of the suspected but also to determining the causes of criminal actions and probable provocative behaviour of the aggrieved.
Internet: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/36594
Appears in Collections:2018 m. (TF mag.)

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