Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/36557
Type of publication: Magistro darbas / Master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law
Author(s): Grigaitė, Jurgita
Title: Ar ribota savivaldybių teisė stabdyti planuojamų ūkinių veiklų įgyvendinimą poveikio aplinkai vertinimo stadijoje nepažeidžia savivaldos autonomiškumo?
Other Title: Whether the limited right of municipalities to stop the implementation of planned economic activities during the environmental impact assessment stage does not violate self-government autonomy?
Extent: 42 p.
Date: 7-Jun-2018
Event: Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas. Teisės fakultetas
Keywords: Poveikio aplinkai vertinimas;Savivaldos autonomiškumas;Ūkinės veiklos ir iniciatyvos laisvė;Municipalities;Self-government autonomy;Limited right
Abstract: Atsižvelgiant į tai, kad kaip vienas svarbiausių efektyvaus valstybės veikimo ir valdymo veiksnių pastaruoju metu daugelyje valstybių yra akcentuojama vietos savivaldos reikšmė, kiekvieną kartą keičiantis įstatymams, kurie reglamentuoja tam tikras vietos savivaldos viešojo administravimo sritis yra svarbu numatyti jų galimą teigiamą ar neigiamą poveikį vietos savivaldos veikimui. Ne viename moksliniame straipsnyje yra pabrėžiama vietos savivaldos galių didinimo svarba ir centralizacijos mažinimas valstybių valdyme. Šiame magistro baigiamajame darbe nagrinėjama ribota vietos savivaldos teisė stabdyti planuojamos ūkinės veiklos įgyvendinimą poveikio aplinkai vertinimo stadijoje santykyje su vietos savivaldos autonomiją. LR Planuojamos ūkinės veiklos poveikio aplinkai vertinimo įstatymo pakeitimu, kurio naujoji redakcija įsigaliojo 2017 m. lapkričio 1 d. buvo apribotos vietos savivaldos galios spręsti, dėl planuojamos ūkinės veiklos įgyvendinimo poveikio aplinkai vertinimo stadijoje. Šiuo moksliniu darbu siekiama nustatyti, ar tokie ribojimai stabdyti planuojamos ūkinės veiklos įgyvendinimą poveikio aplinkai vertinimo stadijoje nepažeidžia vietos savivaldos autonomiškumo. Taip pat, ar apribotų galių pakaks vietos savivaldai tinkamai vykdyti joms įstatymu pavestas funkcijas. Iki 2017 m. lapkričio 1 d. galiojęs Lietuvos Respublikos poveikio aplinkai vertinimo įstatymas užtikrino išskirtinę vietos savivaldos subjektų padėtį poveikio aplinkai vertinimo procese, dėl ko galėjo kilti pavojus vietos savivaldos taryboms piktnaudžiauti savo teisėmis ir nepagrįstai atmesti galimybę kurtis naujoms ūkinėms veikloms ar plėstis jau esamoms. Taip pažeidžiant ir Lietuvos Respublikos, kaip valstybės įsipareigojimus siekti darnaus vystymosi strategijos tikslų. Šiame magistro darbe pateikiamas ir kritinis mokslininkų požiūris vietos savivaldos autonomijos mažinimo klausimais. Lietuvos Respublikoje, lyginant su kitomis Europos Sąjungos valstybėmis, vietos savivaldos autonomijos lygis yra daug mažesnis. Pasikeitęs poveikio aplinkai vertinimo reglamentavimas, kuriuo apribota vietos savivaldos laisvė stabdyti ūkinių veiklų įgyvendinimą poveikio aplinkai vertinimo stadijoje dar labiau didina vietos savivaldos priklausomybę nuo centrinės valdžios. Darbe išanalizuotas ir ūkinės veiklos laisvės ir iniciatyvos principo įgyvendinimas santykyje su vietos savivaldos dalyvavimu planuojamos ūkinės veiklos poveikio aplinkai vertinime. Vietos savivaldos teisė stabdyti planuojamos ūkinės veiklos įgyvendinimą tiesiogiai įtakoja ūkinės veiklos pasirinkimo laisvę. Kuri yra priskiriama prigimtinei žmogaus teisei turėti nuosavybę. Magistro darbe pateikiama Lietuvos Respublikos vyriausiojo administracinio teismo praktika bylose, susijusiose su planuojamos ūkinės veiklos stabdymu poveikio aplinkai vertinimo stadijoje. Nustatyta, kad nuo 2017 m. lapkričio 1 d. pasikeitus LR Planuojamos ūkinės veiklos poveikio aplinkai vertinimo įstatymui, vietos savivaldai yra išsaugoma jos teisė į autonomiją, tačiau tuo pačiu yra pagerinamos sąlygos naujų ūkinių veiklų įgyvendinimui, efektyviau administruojama vietos savivaldos veikla ir tampa lengviau siekti bendrų visos valstybės užsibrėžtų tikslų.
Considering that one of the most important factors of effective functioning and management of the state in many countries is the emphasis on the significance of local self-government, every time when laws are amended that regulate certain areas of public administration, it is important to anticipate their potential positive or negative impact on the functioning of local government. Not one scientific article emphasizes the importance of increasing the powers of municipalities and reducing centralization in the governance of states. The closest of people and emerging troubles is the local government, which should be the easiest way to find the right solutions for dealing with various issues and emerging issues. This scientific work deals with the amendment of the Law on Environmental Impact Assessment of the planned economic activity of the Republic of Lithuania, the new version of which came into force in November 1 of 2017. This amendment to the law has reduced the powers of municipalities, to decide on the impact of the planned economic activity during the environmental impact assessment. After the amendment of the law, the municipalities had been entitled to suspend the implementation of economic activities for an indefinite period during the environmental impact assessment, in the aspect that municipalities will have to submit their reasoned negative decision due to planned economic activities within 20 working days from the receipt of the environmental impact assessment program. This master's thesis seeks to ascertain whether such limitations on the implementation of planned economic activities by municipalities during the stage of environmental impact assessment are without prejudice to self-government autonomy. Exactly limited functions will be sufficient to perform the functions assigned to municipalities by law. This work provides detailed information on local government regulation in Lithuania and Europe. The central instrument governing local self-government in Europe is the European Charter of Local Self-Government, which enshrines the basic principles and objectives of local self-governance. The most significant legal act regulating local self-government in Lithuania is the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania, Chapter 10 of which contains the basic norms. There is also a special law of local government self-government of the Republic of Lithuania. It has been established that the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania, in exercising the right of local self-government to municipalities, to act freely and independently. They are limited only by statutory covenants and powers. It is considered that the principle of the democratic functioning of municipalities also manifests itself through public involvement in decision-making issues, when part of the decision-making issues is solved in the alternative with the local community. The Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania has made it clear that the coordination of the interests of municipalities and the state is extremely important. Therefore, the freedom and autonomy of municipalities are not limitless. It is bounded by their competence as defined in the Constitution and other constitutions and can not contradict the common strategic goals of the state and the welfare of the whole society. By 2017 November 1 the Law on Environmental Impact Assessment of the Republic of Lithuania ensured the exclusive status of municipal institutions in the process of environmental impact assessment. This also violates Lithuania's obligations as a state to pursue the goals of the sustainable development strategy, which seeks to bring about a comprehensive harmonization of environmental, economic and social interests. Knowing that one of the most problematic issues in Lithuania is the exclusion of the regions, municipalities use their great autonomy limits, without justification, reject the possibility of expanding existing business activities or emerging and acting for new economic activities. Therefore, the introduction of certain restrictions on municipalities due to the planned economic activities was necessary and would only help to increase the efficiency of the development of the branches of economy and the welfare of the regions without prejudice to the principle of local self-government autonomy. This master's thesis also presents a critical approach of scientists regarding the reduction of municipal autonomy. Comparing Lithuania with other European countries, the level of autonomy of municipalities is much lower. In Lithuania, the political and administrative system is heavily centralized, so any limitation of the powers of the municipalities entrenched in the law poses a threat to the further introduction of centralization. When comparing Lithuania and other states, it can be concluded that local self-government institutions have considerably less freedom of action and autonomy. Therefore, the changed regulatory environment for environmental impact assessment, which restricts the freedom of municipalities to halt the implementation of economic activities during the environmental impact assessment, further increases the self-government dependence on central government. The work analyzes the implementation of the principle of freedom of economic activity and initiative in municipalities. The right of municipalities to stop the implementation of new planned economic activities directly influences the freedom of choice of economic activity. Which is attributed to the innate human right to own property. Article 46 of the Constitution, which establishes norms regarding the right of private ownership, the freedom of an individual's economic activity and initiative, is not absolute. They can be restricted if it is necessary to protect the values enshrined in the Constitution or fair competition. In accordance with the Law on Public Administration of the Republic of Lithuania, municipalities exercise the function of supervision of economic entities. This function is also carried out through environmental impact assessment procedures. Unfortunately, municipalities, in the absence of the necessary competences and sufficient human resources to properly assess the potential negative impact of the planned economic activities on the environment, often unduly hinder the further implementation of economic activities. In this way, violating the constitutional freedom of economic activity and initiative, as well as the principle of proportionality enshrined in the Law on Public Administration of the Republic of Lithuania. Which means that the spirit of the administrative decision and its implementing measures must meet the necessary and reasonable administrative objectives. In the institution of local self-government of the Republic of Lithuania, as one of the functions of municipalities, the conditions for business development are dampened and the promotion of this activity is dampened. Therefore, municipalities, in accordance with the principle of proportionality, should not hinder the development of business in the regions, but in the event of certain doubts, the potential negative impact of the planned economic activity on the environment can be reconciled with business entities, which is questionable, thus making it difficult to engage in economic activities and without prejudice to the right of municipalities to supervise economic operators. This magistracy also deals with the practice of the Supreme Administrative Court of Lithuania in cases related to the environmental impact assessment when municipalities hinder the implementation of planned economic activities during the environmental impact assessment stage. Analysis of the cases shows that the only requirements for the negative decision of municipalities regarding the possibilities of planned economic activities is that such a decision must be motivated and based on objective data. Therefore, due to changes in the regulation of environmental impact assessment, municipalities retain their right to autonomy, but at the same time they improve the conditions for the implementation of new economic activities, more efficiently administer local self-government activities and facilitate the achievement of common goals of the state as a whole.
Internet: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/36557
Appears in Collections:2018 m. (TF mag.)

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