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Type of publication: Magistro darbas / Master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law
Author(s): Bukartaitė, Gintarė
Title: Ar kyla civilinė atsakomybė sporto dalyviams dėl jų neatsargiais veiksmais sukeltos žalos sporte?
Other Title: Can the participants of a sports event be held liable for the damage by negligent acts which they commit during the event?
Extent: 50 p.
Date: 6-Jun-2018
Event: Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas. Teisės fakultetas
Keywords: Sporto teisė;Neatsargumas;Rūpestingumo pareiga;Rizikos prisiėmimas;Civilinė atsakomybė;Sports law;Negligence;Duty of care;Risk acceptance;Civil liability
Abstract: Šio darbo tikslas - atskleisti sporto dalyvių civilinės atsakomybės kilimo problematiką dėl jų neatsargaus elgesio sporte, kuriuo padaroma žala kitiems sporto dalyviams. Atitinkamai buvo analizuojama civilinės atsakomybės kilimo problematika, keliant klausimą, ar civilinė atsakomybė yra galima, kurių sporto dalyvių atžvilgiu ji gali būti taikoma bei kokie pagrindiniai veiksniai lemia civilinės atsakomybės kilimą. Pasirinkta tema yra aktuali, kadangi Lietuvos teisinėje literatūroje pasigendama mokslinių darbų, kurie detaliai nagrinėtų šį klausimą civilinės teisės kontekste. Pažymėtina, kad civilinės atsakomybės sporte klausimai sulaukia pakankamai daug dėmesio bendrosios teisės sistemos šalyse, tačiau jie nebuvo plačiau nagrinėti Europos Sąjungos kontinentinės teisės šalyse. Darbo tikslui pasiekti ir atsakyti į darbe iškeltą klausimą buvo analizuojami šie teisiniai aspektai: neatsargumo institutas, sporto dalyvių rūpestingumo pareigos kitų dalyvių atžvilgiu ir prisiimamos rizikos ypatumai. Detalesnei šių teisinių institutų analizei atlikti darbe buvo aptariami šių sporto dalyvių – sportininkų, trenerių, klubų ir organizatorių, teisėjų bei žiūrovų – neatsargumo bei rūpestingumo pareigos aspektai, civilinės atsakomybės kilimo atvejai. Taip pat buvo palyginta, kaip šis civilinės atsakomybės klausimas yra sprendžiamas bendrosios teisės sistemos šalyse bei ES kontinentinės teisės šalyse. Atlikus tyrimą ir atskleidus su sporto teise susijusių teisinių institutų problematiką bei ypatumus, galima teigti, jog civilinė atsakomybė sporto dalyviui dėl jo paties neatsargiais veiksmais sukeltos žalos kitam sporto dalyviui gali kilti. Pagrindiniai teisiniai aspektai, kurie yra svarbūs sprendžiant civilinės atsakomybės kilimo klausimą kiekvienam sporto dalyviui dėl neatsargumu sukeltos žalos yra šie: 1. Neatsargumas – ar atlikti veiksmai, arba neveikimas atitinka teisinę neatsargumo instituto sampratą; 2. Rūpestingumo pareigos egzistavimas – ar tarp sporto dalyvių egzistavo rūpestingumo pareiga vienas kito atžvilgiu bei kokia jos apimtis; 3. Rūpestingumo pareigos pažeidimas; 4. Žala kilo dėl to, jog neatsargumu buvo pažeista rūpestingumo pareiga; 5. Žalos numatymas; 6. Priežastinis ryšys; 7. Rizika – sporto dalyvių galimų pavojų suvokimas, savanoriškos rizikos prisiėmimas; 8. Sporto šakos ypatumai – taisyklės, saugumo reikalavimai ir kt.; 9. Kitos toje situacijoje reikšmingos aplinkybės. Taip pat analizuojant šią temą buvo padaryta išvada, jog neatsargumo institutas, rūpestingumo pareiga, rizikos suvokimo institutas ir kiti teisiškai svarbūs aspektai egzistuoja ir yra suvokiami tapačiai bendrosios teisės ir kontinentinės teisės teisinėse sistemose. Dėl to civilinės atsakomybės kilimo klausimo analizei svarbūs pagrindiniai elementai sporto teisėje yra bendri.
Sport is a significant part not only of the world market and of economics, but it is also certainly crucial component of every single culture. It includes not only sportsmen and various staff members (coaches, physical therapists etc.) who help them to prepare for their competitions, but as well officials, clubs, federations and their administration staff, spectators and other participants of sport. Nevertheless, every single kind of sport – individual or team – brings some risk. Therefore, every single sport is regulated by its own specific rules, which disclose and indicate what kind of conduct is appropriate and permissible, and what kind of conduct is considered as inadmissible or even illegal. This is extremely significant within contact sports such as football, rugby or box. However sport can be risky to every single sport participant – not only because of a potential injury of a player, but also of any other sport participant’s negligent conduct which may cause damage to other sport participants. Negligence in sports and particular in sports law is crucial when dealing with question of civil liability. Accordingly, it is essential to understand what negligence is – such kind of conduct that does not go beyond the standard of reasonable and careful person. Hence, it can be described as failure to exercise reasonable care conversely to the reasonable and careful person’s conduct in the same or similar circumstances. That shows that there is always a risk of harm in sports. Moreover, if that harm to a sport participant is committed by negligent act of another sport participant that may imply to consider liability question. In the issue, it is important to consider sport not only as worldwide phenomenon, but to comprehend that sport is also a matter of law that establishes rights and duties to all sports participants. The problem of this thesis is that negligence is common and important type of tort in sports that should be recognized while analyzing and understanding sports risk management and sports law. Yet there is no sufficient discussion of the civil liability question when the damage caused to a sport participant is committed by negligent acts by another sport participant. This means that there are no explicit guidelines of how this question should be solved according to civil law. That was discovered by analyzing various sources of sports law literature. Having in mind that sport is worldwide matter and as well matter of international and national law, it is significant to ascertain how different systems, different countries understand this problem, and how they solve it through different situations in judicial courts. Consequently, to clarify the problematic of civil liability and to answer the question – “can the participants of a sports event be held liable for the damage by negligent acts, which they commit during the event?” – it is important to distinguish and determine these objectives: 1. To disclose the importance of negligence, duty of care, standard of care, acceptance of risk in sports law; 2. To consider these elements in a perspective of different sport participants - sportsmen, coaches, clubs, organizers, officials and spectators; 3. To compare how common law and EU civil law countries understand and deal with this liability question. Analyzing the problem of this thesis through those objectives mentioned above, it is important to emphasize these findings. First, to discover and understand the institute of negligence in sports law – duty of care, standard of care and risks acceptance are integral and main elements to be considered and analyzed. Second, it is necessary to have in mind that all sports participants own duty of care to each other, yet when the damage is done negligently – standard of care of a perpetrator needs to be considered as well as awareness and acceptance of risks of potential harm of an injured sport participant. Therefore, it is a necessity to discuss circumstances, the conduct of these sport participants and compliance with the rules of a particular sport. Third, in a perspective of a various sport participants it is important that the degree of duty of care owned to different groups of sport participants usually differ and therefore the threshold of risks may differ too. Fourth, considering if a particular sport participant can be held liable for his negligence and caused harm, accordingly to a different law systems, but vicarious liability question usually needs to be discussed as well. Fifth, comparison of sports legal literature and analysis of cases in different law systems shows that the main aspects and elements considering liability question is alike. To summarize the analysis of this thesis the drawn conclusion is that the participants of a sports event can be held liable for the damage by negligent acts that they commit during the event. Though, to understand and explicate this question it is extremely important to consider and analyze these significant legal aspects: 1. The damage committed by the negligent act; 2. Existence of a duty of care between participants of sport; 3. Breach of the duty of care by the sport participant; 4. Damage to the sport participant resulting from that breach of duty; 5. Foreseeability of harm; 6. The degree of certainty that participant of sport has suffered the alleged harm; 7. The closeness of connection between the negligent act and potential injury; 8. The actions of sport participant who suffered damage; 9. Awareness and acceptance of risks; 10. Behavior of sport participants complying with particular sport’s rules and its safety rules; 11. International or national law relevance considering civil liability; 12. Other significant circumstances in the particular situation.
Appears in Collections:2018 m. (TF mag.)

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