|Abstract: ||Magistro baigiamajame darbe bus tiriamos vedybinės sutartys, jų rūšys, ypatumai. Bus tiriamas vedybų sutarties naudingumas, būtent dėl kokių priežasčių dauguma žmonių pasirenka sudaryti vedybų sutartį: galimumas nusistatyti pageidaujamą turto teisinį režimą, apsaugoti įkurto verslo ir bendruosius šeimos interesus, sutaupoma laiko ir finansinių išteklių, sutrumpėjęs teismo procesas. Bus aptarti svarbiausi vedybų sutartyje esantys principai: sutarties laisvės, lygiateisiškumo ir sąžiningumo principai – kuom kiekvienas principas yra svarbus sudarant vedybų sutartį ir susitariant dėl sąlygų sutartyje.
Lietuvoje esančios vedybų sutartys bus palygintos su Didžiosios Britanijos, Prancūzijos ir Jungtinių Amerikos Valstijų esančiomis vedybų sutartimis ir teisine sistema. Bus aptartos vedybų sutartys, kurias šalys sudaro užsienyje ir nori įregistruoti Lietuvoje, todėl kyla klausimas kaip yra su neturtiniais reikalavimais, kai šalys sudaro vedybų sutartį užsienyje ir įtraukia neturtinius reikalavimus, ar Lietuvoje galios ir ar galima įregistruoti tokią sutartį.
Lietuvoje vis didėjant ir populiarėjant vedybinių sutarčių įregistravimui bus pateikti statistikos duomenys, kurie rodo kaip nuo 2002 m. iki 2017 m. pirmo pusmečio, kuomet įsigaliojo šeimos institutas Lietuvoje kito ikivedybinės ir povedybinės sutartys. Taip pat darbe bus aptarti Lietuvoje esantys negaliojimo aspektai, griežti reikalavimai turiniui, formai. Vedybų sutartys yra labai susijusios su santuoka, todėl bus aptartos vedybų sutartys moraliniu aspektu. Viso darbo metu bus ieškoma atsakymo į iškeltą mokslinį klausimą – ar galios užsienyje sudaryta vedybinė sutartis, kai šalys įtraukia neturtinius reikalavimus? – gautomis išvadomis bus patvirtinta arba paneigta iškelta hipotezė.|
A marriage between a man and a woman is an important desire expressed by both parties and an agreement to receive the Sacrament of Matrimony, and equally important freedom and will in concluding a marriage contract. As the number of marriage contracts grows, it wants to protect its assets in the event of divorce, but the Lithuanian Civil Code and the laws only allow for discussing property claims, but if the parties make a marriage contract abroad, for example. In the United States, where it is allowed to include both property and non-property requirements as will be with the registration of a marriage contract and the validity of non-pecuniary claims, when only property conditions exist in Lithuania.
Master's thesis will analyse marriage contracts, their types, peculiarities. The utility of the marriage contract will be explored, namely, for what reasons most people choose to enter into a marriage contract: the possibility of setting the desired property legal regime, protecting the business being established and the general interests of the family, saving time and financial resources, shortening court proceedings. The main principles in the marriage contract will be discussed: principles of contract freedom, equality of rights and fairness - every principle is important for the conclusion of a marriage contract and agreement on the terms of the contract.
Marriage contracts in Lithuania will be compared to marriage contracts and the legal system in place with the United Kingdom, France and the United States. Marriage contracts will be discussed when the sides make them abroad and want to register in Lithuania, therefore the question arises as to the non-material requirements when the parties enter into a marriage contract abroad and include non-pecuniary claims, whether in Lithuania and whether such a contract can be registered.
In Lithuania, as the number of registered marriage contracts grows and become more popular, statistics will be presented showing that from 2002 till 2017 first half of the year, when the family institute in Lithuania came into force, there were varies of premarital and post-election contracts. Therefore, the spouses living in Lithuania, who want to protect their property after divorce, make marriage contracts as a guarantee, considering themselves as a personality, as well as not wanting to be a conservative country, but just to modernize from the west, take what is popular. Also, in this work will be discussed aspects of invalidity in Lithuania, strict requirements for content, for form. Marriage contracts are very related to marriage, so marriage contracts will be discussed in a moral sense. When making a marriage or preparing for a marriage, most of the spouses do not think in the conclusion of marriage contracts, whether a marriage contract is in conformity with morale. Therefore, in order to overcome the relationship crisis, the couples must not provide divorce documents, but use the Church's assistance and workshops, consultations, as this can help to save the marriage.
During the whole work will be searched for the answer to the raised scientific question – whether the marriage contract has been made abroad when the countries include non-pecuniary requirements? – the conclusions obtained will confirm or reject the hypothesis raised.
Summarizing all the research work, the following conclusions can be drawn:
1. It is useful to conclude a marriage contract, since the parties can freely choose their preferred legal regime of property, protect the business they have founded and general family interests, save time and financial resources, and reduce court proceedings.
2. There are two types of marriage contracts – prenuptial and postnuptial. Sustaining to the statistical information, the number of marriage contracts, particularly the registration of postnuptial contracts, is increasing in Lithuania.
3. The marriage contract can only be negotiated and agreed on matters of property; is classified as a contract of personal nature and therefore can not be concluded through a representative; there is an opportunity to register a marriage contract concluded abroad in Lithuania.
4. When concluding a marriage contract, the three main principles are most important: the principles of freedom of contract, equality and honesty.
5. In Lithuania, only the property claims are agreed, but non-material conditions in the marriage contract can not be included. Marriage contracts concluded abroad will be registered in Lithuania, but if the non-material requirements are agreed upon, only conditions based on property claims will be valid in Lithuania. In the event of divorce, the court will decide, on the grounds of non-material conditions, on the individual consideration of all circumstances, but may also impose moral damage Lithuania only agrees on property claims, but non-material conditions in the marriage contract can not be included.
6. The Lithuanian marriage contract is most similar to the norms in force in France, because there are strict requirements for content, the same form of contract, a notarial agreement to approve the marriage contract, can only be arranged on the basis of property claims, an important principle of conscientiousness. The British marriage contract is an important principle of justice, but there are no requirements for the form, there is no possibility to register a contract. The US marriage contract can include both non-pecuniary property claims. A marriage contract may be approved by a third party or a notary public, an alternative is given. The most important principle is honesty.
7. In the moral aspect of the marriage contract, the Sacrament of Marriage after the marriage is not valid because marriage contractual preconditions are created.
At the beginning of the work, the hypothesis that the marriage contract concluded abroad is valid in Lithuania, when the parties include the non-material requirements, has not been confirmed, as Lithuania can only be reached on the basis of property claims, while marriage contracts concluded abroad can be registered, but only property claims, non-pecuniary claims the court may order moral harm or deal individually on a case-by-case basis.
After analyzing the concept of marriage contract, its kind, peculiarities, principles, aspects of invalidity, moral aspects and comparing the legal systems of foreign countries with the whole work, I would recommend taking into account the legal system in the United States, which includes both the inclusion of property and non-pecuniary claims in marriage contracts, in order to Both parties could deal with certain issues related to custody, maintenance and education of juvenile children, as both parties make provision for the future in the marriage contract and the child's maintenance or education is important for each country if this approach is different, it is only important that the conditions of the marriage contract correspond to the interests of the child and would not contradict the imperative norms of the law. I would recommend in Lithuania to allow the inmates and spouses to include non-pecuniary requirements in the marriage contract, since from this point of view Lithuania would be more modern, less conservative, and the parties could decide freely and freely on what kind of marriage contract they would like to conclude and what conditions to include.