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Type of publication: Magistro darbas / Master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law
Author(s): Mandravickas, Tautvydas
Title: Ar taikant vaiko grąžinimą pagal 1980 m. Hagos konvenciją dėl tarptautinio vaikų grobimo civilinių aspektų nepažeidžiama vaiko teisė reikšti savo nuomonę ir būti išklausytam procese?
Other Title: Does the return of the child by 1980 the Hague convention on the civil aspects of child abduction doesn't violate the right of the child to express their opinion and be heard in the process?
Extent: 34 p.
Date: 12-Jan-2018
Event: Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas. Teisės fakultetas
Keywords: Vaiko išklausymas;Hagos konvencija;Vaiko interesai;Child's hearing;Hague convention;Child's interests
Abstract: Darbe analizuojamos vaiko teisės pasisakyti ir būti išklausytam bylose dėl vaiko grobimo pagal 1980 m. Hagos konvenciją dėl tarptautinio vaikų grobimo civilinių aspektų. Pirmoji darbo dalis skirta vaikų grobimo sąvokai bei vaikų teisės pasisakyti ir būti išklausytam reglamentavimui tiek tarptautiniu, tiek nacionaliniu lygmeniu. Antroje darbo dalyje analizuojama Lietuvos ir Jungtinės Karalystės teismų praktika išskiriant tris esmines problemas, kurios iškyla teismui išklausius vaiko nuomonę, o būtent: vaiko nuomonė yra nulemta kito tėvo ar pačios situacijos, vaiko nuomonė prieštarauja jo interesams, vaikas yra per mažas ar nepakankamai brandus, kad galėtų reikšti savo nuomonę. Teismui nustačius, kad vaikas neišsako savo tikrosios nuomonės, paprastai tokia nuomone nėra remiamasi. Jungtinės Karalystės teismas yra išaiškinęs, kad tokia nuomonė laikoma mažareikšme arba ja visiškai nesiremiama. Lietuvos teismai, nagrinėdami laikosi panašios pozicijos, tačiau vienoje byloje Lietuvos Aukščiausiasis Teismas išaiškino, jog tokia nuomone galima remtis, kadangi vaikas jau buvo sulaukęs 14 metų, o tokio amžiaus vaiko nuomonės reikia paisyti, nepaisant to, jog vaiko nuomonė buvo iš dalies nulemta vieno iš tėvų. Spręsdami klausimą dėl vaiko grąžinimo ir vertindami jo nuomonę, teismas privalo nustatyti vaiko interesus. Tokiu atveju, jeigu vaiko išreikšta nuomonė dėl jo grąžinimo prieštarauja jo interesams, tokia nuomone nėra remiamasi, pirmenybė turi būti suteikiama vaiko interesams. Tiek Lietuvos, tiek Jungtinės Karalystės teismai laikosi nurodytos vieningos nuomonės. Išklausius vaiko nuomonę, turi būti įvertinta, ar vaikas yra pakankamo amžiaus ir pakankamai brandus, kad galėtų išreikšti savo nuomonę. Nėra nustatyta žemiausia vaiko amžiaus riba, nuo kurios vaiko nuomonė gali būti išklausyta, tai teismai sprendžia individualiai kiekvienoje byloje, aukščiausia amžiaus riba- iki 16 metų, kadangi pagal Hagos konvenciją vaiku laikomas asmuo iki 16 metų. Teismai kiekvienu konkrečiu atveju, įvertinę visas reikšmingas bylos aplinkybes, privalo spręsti, ar į vaiko nuomonę atsižvelgti, ar ji nėra nulemta vieno iš tėvų, ar vaikas yra pakankamai brandus savo nuomonei išsakyti ir ar vaiko nuomonė neprieštarauja jo interesams.
The thesis analyzes the child's right to speak and be heard in cases of child abduction under The 1980 Hague Convention on the Civil Aspects of International Child Abduction. The Hague Convention states that the judicial or administrative authority may refuse to order the return of the child if it finds that the child objects to being returned and has attained an age and degree of maturity at which it is appropriate to take account of its views. The first part of the thesis deals with the concept of child abduction and the right of children to speak and be heard on the regulation both at international and national level. An international child abduction is considered to be the unlawful removal of a child from one's parents' children from his usual place of residence to another country without the consent of another parent or mother and possession therein. Children must be given the right to speak when examining cases concerning the return of a child, which is enshrined both at international and national level. The second part of the thesis analyzes the practice of the courts of Lithuania and the United Kingdom. When assessing court interpretations regarding the child's right to speak, it should be noted that there are not many cases in Lithuania dealing with such cases in cases involving child abduction under the Hague Convention. Therefore, in this work the interpretations of the Lithuanian courts are compared with the United Kingdom explanations regarding the application of the Hague Convention. Three main problems that arise when hearing the child's views: the child's views are determined by another father or the situation, the child's views are in conflict with his interests, the child is too young or not mature enough to express his or her views. The child's views can be determined by the father, brothers or sisters, and so on. When the court finds that the child does not express his true opinion, such an opinion is usually not relied upon. The United Kingdom court has made it clear that such an opinion is considered to be of little or no recourse. The Lithuanian courts are in a similar position, but in one case the Supreme Court of Lithuania made it clear that such an opinion could be relied upon because the child had already reached the age of 14 and the child's views had to be respected, even though the child's opinion was partly determined by one of the parents. An example of a given case shows that courts, after assessing the circumstances of a case, have the opportunity to decide whether they take into account the child's opinion, even if it is established that the child's opinion was determined and this gives the courts uncertainty or take into account the child's opinion that is determined for example one of the parents or not. When deciding on the issue of returning a child and evaluating his opinion, the court must determine the interests of the child. In such a case, if the opinion expressed by the child on his return is in conflict with his interests, such opinion shall not be relied upon, priority shall be given to the interests of the child. Both the courts of Lithuania and the United Kingdom follow the above-mentioned unanimous opinion. In the case of the return of a child, a great deal of attention is paid to the interests of the child. After hearing the child's opinion, it must be decided whether the child is of sufficient age and sufficiently mature to express his or her views. It can be done directly by the court or by the specialists who identify it. The courts consider the child's age and his ability to express views very differently. It must be said that there is no age limit for the child to be heard from which the child's opinion can be heard, the courts decide individually in each case. The highest age limit is up to 16 years because under the Hague Convention a child is considered to be a person under 16 years of age. The minimum age of the child whose opinion was taken into account was 6,5 years. However, it is believed that a child of this age is small enough, so the question arises whether he is able to express his opinion properly. In each case, the courts, having assessed all relevant circumstances of the case, must decide whether the child's views should be taken into account, whether it is determined by one of the parents, whether the child is mature enough to express his views and whether the child's opinion is in accordance with his or her interests. Attention is also drawn to the fact that the Hague Convention does not oblige the courts to take into account the child's views on the return of the child.
Appears in Collections:2018 m. (TF mag.)

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