Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/35036
Type of publication: Magistro darbas / Master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law
Author(s): Žitkus, Deividas
Title: Ar viešas pranešimas apie įmonės rinkos planus gali būti laikomas konkurencijos pažeidimu?
Other Title: Whether public disclosure of companies future market plans can be considered as a violation of competition?
Extent: 38 p.
Date: 2-Jun-2017
Event: Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas. Teisės fakultetas
Keywords: Konkurencija;Neleistini susitarimai;Vienašaliai pažeidimai;SESV;Competition;Collusion;Unileteral violations;TFEU
Abstract: Konkurencija – vienas svarbiausių laisvosios rinkos ir ekonomikos pagrindų. Nors konkurencija ir yra reguliuojama nacionalinė bei Europos Sąjungos sritis ir valstybė siekia uždrausti neleistinus konkurencinius (kartelinius) susitarimus, jie vis tiek sugeba vešėti. Tokie susitarimai gali būti sudaromi įvairiais būdais iš kurių pasirinktas vienas plačiau analizuojamas darbe – susitarimai sudaromi per viešus skelbimus apie ateities planus rinkoje, tikintis, kad konkurentai prisiderins prie įmonės paskelbusios planus veiksmų, ar viešai atsakys į tokį skelbimą. Dėl minimos priežasties iškyla klausimas ar vieši pranešimai apie įmonės rinkos planus gali būti laikomi konkurenciniu pažeidimu. Šis klausimas darbe nagrinėjamas nacionaliniu Lietuvos, regioniniu Europos Sąjungos lygmeniu. Magistriniame darbe svarbu išanalizuoti konkurencijos apibrėžimą, jos reguliavimą, daromą žalą ekonomikai ir vartotojų teisėms, bei kas yra vienašaliai konkurencijos pažeidimai ir kaip galima identifikuoti kartelinius susitarimus, sudarytus per viešos informacijos, apie rinkos planus atskleidimą. Magistrinio darbo temos pasirinkimą lėmė darbų, teismo praktikos Lietuvoje trūkumas apie vienašalius konkurencijos pažeidimus. Pati konkurencija yra apibrėžiama kaip savaime susiformuojantis reiškinys lemiantis naudą vartotojams ir ekonomikai. Tinkamas jos reglamentavimas užtikrina ūkinės veiklos ir ekonomikos stabilumą, tačiau siekiant tai užtikrinti konkurenciją kontroliuojančios institucijos turi pasirūpinti, kad tokie susitarimai nebūtų sudaromi ir griežtai reguliuoti tai įstatymais. Konkurenciją reguliuojantys įstatymai nenumato atskiro reguliavimo vienašaliams konkurencijos pažeidimams, praktika šiuo klausimu menka, todėl tokius pažeidimus yra labai sunku identifikuoti. Lietuvos teismai praktikos dėl klausimo apie vienašalius konkurencinius pažeidimus viešai atskleidžiant rinkos planus neturi, tačiau tokių susitarimų identifikavimo ir sprendimo būdų galima pasisemti iš Europos Sąjungos Teisingumo teismo ir Europos Komisijos praktikos. Teisingumo teismas savo sprendimuose pažymi, kad leidimas konkurentams adaptuotis prie viešai paskelbtos informacijos apie įmonės rinkos planus ar kainų pasikeitimus, suteikiant tam ilgą laiko tarpą, gali būti laikomas konkurencijos pažeidimu. Vis gi tokios nuostatos negali būti taikomos visiems atvejams, kai kada tokios informacijos pranešimas viešai gali būti efektyviausias būdas informuoti klientus, ypač jei jų yra tūkstančiai, o visų klientų informavimas yra sudėtingas ir brangus.
Competition is an important element in a free market economy. Even though anti-competitive agreements are prohibited under national as well as EU competition law, they still manage to persist. Illegal anti-competitive collusions can be constituted in many ways. This work is focused on specific collusions – collusions made through public announcements, in which one party announces their future market plans hoping that one of the competitors will respond to such announcement either through making their own announcements or through following the same practice based on the information announced. Because of the existence of such collusions, the question is whether public disclosure of companies’ future market plans can be considered as a violation of competition law. In this work, the relevant provisions of the Lithuanian Competition and the European Union will be examined. This work will be focusing on definition of competition; enforcement of antitrust law; what damages illegal collusion does for the economy and consumers rights; most importantly is to define what anticompetitive collusions are and how to identify unilateral breach of competition law made through public announcements about companies’ future market plans. This topic of Master thesis was selected due to the lack of studies on this matter. It was also selected due to the weak position of Competition Council of the Republic of Lithuania in complaint concerning money withdrawing rate rise from ATM for three largest banks in Lithuania. Competition is defined as process which forms naturally and benefits both consumers and economy. Perfect competition could exist when creative destruction exist in the market as was suggested by J. Schumpeter. It implies that new products would push the old ones out of the market and they would continue through the competition ladder and in doing so it main goal of competition would be reached which is improvement of products and services quality. To ensure a stability in economy proper actions must be introduced by the institution responsible for competition regulations. The institution has to make sure that cartel agreement would not be formed through strict regulation and observance of the competing subjects actions in the same market. Anti-competitive collusions are the worst enemies of the economy and open market and it is regulated by the Lithuanian Law on Competition, the Constitution of Lithuania and the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union. Usually these actions are made through price increase, sharing of the market, limiting of production and exchanging information about future market plans. The European Court of Justice and European Commission applies high standards for such actions. Sometimes even talking about the weather can be regarded as a breach of competition law. Through such arrangements companies try to maximize their income with as little effort as possible. In doing so, they damage economy and consumers rights. It is proven that where competition law is poorly regulated, there is poor economy and higher poverty. Good competition policies insure existence of small businesses and compensative actions for cartel damages. It also helps to attract investors who help economy to grow significantly as they might feel much safer in the market where their right is ensured by the law. Though issuing a claim for an individual alone can be very disproportionate as damages sometime can be only 20€, so more resources would be spent on litigation than the claim is worth so such actions should be made through group claims and with help of institution responsible for competition. Also there are always exceptions. De minimis notice shows that if unlawful competition agreements can be so small that it does not really impact competition in the market. If commission determines that, it can refuse to investigate a complaint. The Lithuanian Law on Competition includes exemption from punishment if one of the parties admits their guilt before investigation begins and helps within the investigation of the cartel. With these existing exceptions it has to be made sure that impunity wouldn’t be implemented too freely and parties responsible would answer for their breach of law. Laws that regulate competition do not regulate unilateral breaches of competition separately, though we could say that they come from regular competition law as the actions has the same regulation disposition. There is very little case law regarding unilateral breach of competition so it is hard to identify such actions and prove it in the court. Lithuania has no case law regarding the issue at work, our only option is to look at the European Union Court of Justice practice in such matters. Court of Justice has stated that announcing about the future price changes is not a violation in itself, competition institutions has to observe whether competitor has made any changes in his strategy or prices after announcement has been made. Though we cannot assert that every time someone publicly announces about their future prices or other plans in the market that they are trying to arrange anti-competitive collusion. Sometimes such information is a best way to inform clients about changes in the company that affect them directly as well and this is most important for the large companies which have thousands of clients.
Internet: https://eltalpykla.vdu.lt/1/35036
https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/35036
Appears in Collections:2017 m. (TF mag.)

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