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Type of publication: Magistro darbas / Master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law
Author(s): Vonžodaitė, Ramunė
Contributor(s): Pasvenskienė, Aušrinė
Title: Ar reikalavimas asmeniškai dalyvauti sudarant santuokos sandorį nepažeidžia sutarties laisvės principo?
Other Title: Does the requirement to personally participate in the covenant of marriage contradicts the principle of contractual freedom?
Extent: 36 p.
Date: 2-Jun-2017
Event: Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas. Teisės fakultetas
Keywords: Santuokos sudarymo procedūra;Sutarties laisvės principas;Santuokos savanoriškumas;Marriage procedure;Principle of contractual freedom;Consent to marry
Abstract: Šiame darbe nagrinėjamas sutarties laisvės principo ir santuokos sudarymo procedūros santykis. Keliamas klausimas ar reikalavimas sudaryti santuoką abiems sutuoktiniams asmeniškai dalyvaujant nepažeidžia minėto principo. Siekiama išsiaiškinti ar sutuoktiniams valstybė užtikrina teisę pasirinkti santuokos sudarymo procedūrą. Darbe taipogi apžvelgiama šeimos ir santuokos sampratų kaita ir priežastys, kodėl šios sampratos kinta. Šeimos samprata aiškinama kaip teisinė ir kaip socialinė kategorijos, atsižvelgiama į poreikį šeimos sampratą pritaikyti prie esamos socialinės ir demografinės situacijos, atsižvelgiant į įvairius globalizacijos procesus. Toliau atskleidžiami santuokos sudarymui keliami reikalavimai, tarpusavyje palyginamos šiuo metu Lietuvoje reglamentuotos santuokos sudarymo procedūros – santuokos sudarymas metrikacijos įstaigoje ir santuokos sudarymą pagal bažnyčios (konfesijų) nustatytą tvarką. Siekiama išsiaiškinti kokį viešąjį interesą valstybė įžvelgia šeimos teisiniuose santykiuose, jog šiuos laiko visuomenės pagrindu. Atskleidžiama kokią prasmę santuokos sudaryme įžvelgia ir patys santuoką sudarantys asmenys, kas jiems sudarant santuoką yra aktualu. Ieškoma alternatyvių santuokos sudarymo procedūrų atsižvelgiant į kitose šalyse įtvirtintus santuokos sudarymo būdus. Plačiausiai apžvelgiamos tokios alternatyvios santuokos sudarymo procedūros kaip santuokos sudarymas per įgaliotą asmenį ar santuokos sudarymas internetu. Siekiant užtikrinti valstybės ir asmens interesų pusiausvyrą santuokos sudaryme keliama idėja apie santuokos sudarymo per įgaliojimą ir naudojantis informacinės technologijomis apjungimą, kaip siekį liberalizuoti ir modernizuoti santuokos sudarymo procedūrą.  
Under Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania article 38 the family is recognized as the basis of society and the State; also, this article consolidates that marriage is based upon the free mutual consent of man and woman. Civil Code of the Republic of Lithuania (articles from 3.12 to 3.17) sets conditions for contracting a marriage. These conditions are: 1. Prohibiting marriage of persons of the same gender, 2. Stating that marriage can only be contracted by a man and a woman of their own free will, 3. Setting legal age of consent to marriage, 4. Setting active capacity requirement for parties contracting for marriage, 5. Prohibiting violation of the principle of monogamy, and 6. Prohibiting to contract marriage between close relatives. Furthermore, this paper overviews what kind of formalities are established for the procedure of going into marriage. It covers two type of formal procedures: the civil procedure and procedure set by religious society. This paper explains how States approach on family conception may interfere with the person understanding of what the purpose of marriage is. This paper takes into consideration free will of contracting parties and compares it with the principle of contractual freedom. The contract freedom is taken into consideration because the State recognizes marriage as a contract. All considerations whether the marriage is a contract or status are known, but because of the state recognition, in this paper there is no overview or analysis about these debates. If the state recognizes marriage as a contract it gives us a chance to adopt basic contract law and principles to marriage institution and its reglamentation. And this is exactly what is done in this paper. Also paper challenges that free consent to get into marriage and contractual freedom is not the same and the State needs to take measures to protect both of them. To do this, it talks about family and marriage concepts through different times and different countries. It mentions that concept of marriage evolved from being an arrangement of political power to economic power and meaning of it is changed during couple of last decades. Traditional marriage conception by which man and woman marriage with the purpose to have children and raise them (with the state purpose to ensure longevity and continuity of the state and society in mind) is at risk. New forms of family are arising: partnership, same-sex marriages, single parents and etc. Still, under Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania there is one way to enter into family which state values and protects the most – it’s marriage. So, this shows the need to change requirements to marriage if the state wants to benefit as more it’s citizens as possible. Also, having in mind that Lithuania’s demographical situation is bad, changing the procedure may help Lithuanian citizens to enter into marriage more easily. Moreover, in this paper the question does the requirement to personally participate in the covenant of marriage contradicts the principle of contractual freedom is raised. It also raises a question does the personal and physical participation are proportionate measure of ensuring parties free consent to create marriage relationship. For this purpose, there is a review about alternative marriage procedures, such as proxy marriage and e-marriage proposed by Candeub and Kuykendall. First of all, there is an overview about proxy marriage procedure and how this procedure roots formed through ancient Roman law and in some legal systems stayed till our times. Proxy marriage served to a lot of people during I and II world wars, because it ensured the right to marry to deployed soldiers and for their other halves it ensured social benefits from the states. E-marriage goal, as Candeub and Kuykendall, described, is to modernize the archaic procedures states use to authorize marriages, also to provide legal flexibility, promote efficiency, and enhance individual choice. Later on, proposition about mixing those two procedures are explained. It covers that this proxy/e-marriage procedure could solve two problems: 1. It would allow for the person, who under important circumstances, cannot participate in marriage ceremony personally, to do it by using internet and 2. it is also good for the state, which seeks to find out a true consent about making a marriage with other person, because it fulfills the requirement to participate personally and the requirement to participate physically fulfils non-participating party agent who acts through proxy.
Appears in Collections:2017 m. (TF mag.)

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