Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/34950
Type of publication: Magistro darbas / Master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law
Author(s): Rudzevičiūtė, Simona
Title: Ar nusikalstamomis tyčinėmis veikomis padarytos žalos nurašymas ir fizinių asmenų bankroto įstatymo pagrindu neprieštarauja teisinės valstybės principui?
Other Title: Does releasing damages caused by intentional criminal acts under law on the bankruptcy of natural persons of the republic of lithuania contradict to the rule of law?
Extent: 40 p.
Date: 1-Jun-2017
Event: Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas. Teisės fakultetas
Keywords: Bankrotas;Žala;Valstybė;Principas;Bankruptcy;Damages;Rule of law;State
Abstract: „Antras šansas“ (angl. fresh start) tai principas, suteikiantis skolininkui galimybę dar kartą įsitraukti į ekonominę veiklą, kuris yra pagrindu fizinių asmenų bankroto institutui tiek kontinentinės, tiek bendrosios teisės tradicijų šalyse. Tačiau dėl skirtingų šalių finansų politikų, individualiai formuojamų remiantis teisinės valstybės principu, nėra vieningo fizinių asmenų bankroto reguliavimo darbe keliamos problemos atžvilgiu. Lietuvos atveju, praktikoje susiduriama su įstatymo taikymo problema, jei skolininko nemokumo priežastis yra prievolė, kilusi iš tyčinės nusikalstamos veikos padarinių – žalos atlyginimo. Nors kaip problema akcentuojamos nusikalstamos veikos, turinčios apgaulės elementą, tačiau, darbo autorės nuomone, neturėtų būti ignoruojamos kitos veikos, kuriomis pažeidžiama kreditoriaus nuosavybė. Siekiant išsiaiškinti, ar kreditorių, kurių reikalavimai kilo dėl BK 178-189 str. nusikalstamų veikų, nuosavybės teisės ribojimas yra suderinamas su teisinės valstybės principu, darbe iškeliama hipotezė – dėl BK 178-189 str. nurodytų nusikalstamų veikų atlikimo atsiradusių reikalavimų, jei jie yra skolininko nemokumo priežastimi, nurašymas nepasibaigus skolininko teistumo terminui prieštarauja teisinės valstybės principui. Grindžiant hipotezę pirmoje darbo dalyje yra analizuojama teisinės valstybės principo koncepcija bei interpretacija šiuolaikinėje teisėje. Remiantis įvairių autorių teorinėmis studijomis teigtina, kad teisinės valstybės principas nors ir turi nekintančius pamatinius dėsnius, tačiau kiekvienoje šalyje yra individualus. Šioje darbo dalyje nustatyta, kad FABĮ taikyme kylančios problemos sudaro pagrindą teigti, jog išimčių formuluotės neatitinka teisinio aiškumo reikalavimo. Antroje darbo dalyje atlikus sąžiningumo ir apgaulės elemento analizę darytina išvada, kad tiek baudžiamojoje, tiek civilinėje teisėje sutampa ta apgaulės supratimo dalis, kuri apgaule pripažįstamas kito asmens suklaidinimas pranešant jam melagingas žinias arba nutylint tikruosius faktus. O atlikus nusikalstamų veikų analizę darytina išvada, nusikalstamos veikos ekonomikai ir verslo tvarkai, yra specialiosios normos nusikalstamų veikų nuosavybei atžvilgiu, o nusikalstamos veikos finansų sistemai atlikimo būdo atžvilgiu tap pat itin panašios į nusikalstamas veikas nuosavybei. Trečioje darbo dalyje yra skiriamas dėmesys užsienio šalių praktikai atsižvelgiant į skirtingas teisinių tradicijų nuostatas ir pateikiama darbo autorės nuomonė, paremta pirmojoje ir antrojoje darbo dalyse atlikta analize bei užsienio šalių praktika. Atsižvelgiant į atliktą analizę darytina išvada, jog hipotezė, kad dėl BK 178-189 str. nurodytų nusikalstamų veikų atlikimo atsiradusių reikalavimų, jei jie yra skolininko nemokumo priežastimi, nurašymas nepasibaigus skolininko teistumo terminui prieštarauja teisinės valstybės principui yra patvirtinta.
Does Releasing Damages Caused by Intentional Criminal Acts Under Law on the Bankruptcy of Natural Persons of the Republic of Lithuania Contradict to the Rule of Law? Common principle that is the ground of institute of natural person insolvency is capacity to restore already over-indebted natural person/ consumer access to credit and the provision of new products in financial services. Generally this concept is called “fresh start” doctrine. Even though doctrine of “fresh start” is the product of Anglo-Saxon legal tradition, Continent law countries successfully adopted it but with some modifications. The main difference between legal traditions is that European continental law countries exclude open access to insolvency because person that may enjoys it must be worthy. Meanwhile, the main function of consumer bankruptcy regime is to serve credit market. This difference between legal traditions as well indicates one of the basics principles in lawful community – the rule of law. The rule of law lets countries create an efficient and independent justice system which ensures predictable, timely and enforceable judicial decisions that can contribute to trust and stability – both important elements for a sound business and investment environment. In other words, by leading rule of law countries can and are formulating financial policies that are different from each other and those differences are the reason of inability to create common ruling for exceptions to refuse to release the debtor from specific obligations. On contrary, there is no crucial evidence that abovementioned thesis is entirely true because some similarities exist, yet some creditors in different countries but in the same situations become more equal than the others. In order to elucidate if restriction of creditors property rights whose claims aroused because of breach of Articles 178-189 of Penal Code of the Republic of Lithuania contradict to the rule of law, the hypothesis put forward that the release of damages that aroused of breach of Articles 178-189 of Penal Code of the Republic of Lithuania if they are cause of debtors insolvency and term of debtors conviction is not over contradict to the rule of law. The first part of this paper is dedicated to the source of rule of law and nowadays interpretation as well as analysis of the rule of law in Lithuania. The analysis has been shown that the institute of Natural Person Insolvency Law of the Republic of Lithuania is interpreted through official constitutional doctrine that is formulated by constitutional justice institution. One of the most important elements of constitutional doctrine is legal certainty that oblige legislative body to avoid ambiguity and formulate legal act in set terms. These criterions apply also to Natural person insolvency law of the Republic of Lithuania. Nonetheless, practitioners face with the problem in applying this law when the situation considers about refusal to declare bankruptcy to a person, if the main reason of his/ her insolvency is obligation that arises from consequence of intentional criminal activity – the obligation to repay damages. Even though in practice all attention is going to criminal activities that have fraud element, yet should not be ignored others criminal activities that involve breach of creditors property. This attitude is followed by analysis and comparison of criminal activities that pointed out in Article 5 of Natural Person Insolvency Law of the Republic of Lithuania with criminal activities that involve breach of creditor’s property, property rights and property interests, that are analyzed in the second part of this paper. Specified norms of Penal Code of the Republic of Lithuania are selected because of consequences of intentional criminal activity (damages) and conformities in content of norms. The first look in Articles 207, 208, 209, 216, 222, 223 of Penal Code of the Republic of Lithuania in comparison with Articles 178, 179, 180, 181,182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189 of Penal Code of the Republic of Lithuania showing differences between victim’s personality. One set of crimes seems to include more country’s attention than the other because of financial policy, meaning that damage to certain type of creditors may have negative consequences to entirely country. The proof of importance of certain type creditors may also be Article 5 of Natural Person Insolvency Law of the Republic of Lithuania. On one hand, legislative body choice to exclude from Natural Person Insolvency Law of the Republic of Lithuania criminal activities that specified in Articles 178-189 of Penal Code of the Republic of Lithuania let courts have more discretion in decision whether or not initiate bankruptcy procedure to natural person. On the other hand, damages that arose from those criminal activities and are the reason of insolvency are not absolute ground for refusal to initiate bankruptcy proceeding and that might lead to legal uncertainty. Furthermore, non-existing unanimous practice in this field might lead to situation when one person at the same conditions will bankrupt, the other will not. Legal uncertainty also has influence on increasing the workload of the courts. The statement is based on statistical data. During year 2016 according to Prison Department under the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Lithuania data released from prison for robbery were 439 people, for theft – 677 people, for extortion – 62 people, for fraud – 199 people, imprisoned for robbery were 354 people, for theft – 599 people, for extortion – 36, for fraud – 169 people. Because of lack of clarity in Natural Person Insolvency Law of the Republic of Lithuania those who were released from prison might be possible applicants to file for bankruptcy. The third part of this paper consists of analysis of foreign countries legislations in the field of exceptions in releasing debtors from specific obligations. The analysis has been shown that 7 countries of Anglo-Saxon law legal tradition are tend to formulate abstract norms that refers to principle of good faith while countries of Continental law legal tradition are tend to formulate specified norms that refers to certain crimes. This part of paper also includes author’s position about wording of norms of exception in Natural Person Insolvency Law of the Republic of Lithuania. The hypothesis that the release of damages that aroused of breach of Articles 178-189 of Penal Code of the Republic of Lithuania if they are cause of debtors insolvency and then term of debtors conviction is not over contradict to the rule of law has been proved.
Internet: https://eltalpykla.vdu.lt/1/34950
https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/34950
Appears in Collections:2017 m. (TF mag.)

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