Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/34908
Type of publication: Magistro darbas / Master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law
Author(s): Pšilenskienė, Rasa
Title: Lankščios darbo organizavimo formos: terminuota darbo sutartis
Other Title: Flexible work organization forms: fixed-term contracts
Extent: 50 p.
Date: 1-Jun-2017
Event: Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas. Teisės fakultetas
Keywords: Sutartis;Darbo sutartis;Terminuota darbo sutartis;Contract;Fixed-term contract;Fixed-term contract
Abstract: Greitai kintantys ekonominiai, socialiniai veiksniai, taip pat, kaip ir greitas technologijų vystymasis ar kintantys vartotojų poreikiai ir didėjantis paslaugų sektorius, reikalauja pokyčių darbo rinkoje, atsižvelgiant į tai, išaugo poreikis lankstesnėms darbo organizavimo formoms. Atsiranda naujos sutarčių rūšys ir keičiasi jau esančių darbo sutarčių rūšių reguliavimas. Viena iš lanksčių darbo santykių organizavimo formų yra terminuota darbo sutartis, kurios esminis elementas yra laikinumas. Todėl šią sutartimi įforminami terminuoto pobūdžio darbo santykiai, kurių sudarymą, vykdymą ir nutraukimą, reglamentuoja Darbo kodekso (toliau - DK) 109 - 111 straipsniai. Tačiau, Lietuvos Respublikos Seimas 2016 m. rugsėjo 14 d. priėmė naują Darbo kodeksą (toliau - NDK), kuris įsigalios nuo 2017 m. sausio 1 d. Naujame Darbo kodekse įtvirtintas lankstesnis darbo teisinių santykių organizavimas, lyginant su galiojančiu Darbo kodeksu. Naujajame Darbo kodekse terminuotų darbo sutarčių sudarymą, vykdymą ir nutraukimą reglamentuoja skirtingi straipsniai, t. y. 67 – 71 straipsniai. Šiame darbe bus nagrinėjama terminuotos darbo sutarties reglamentavimas galiojančiame Darbo kodekse ir lyginant su 2016 m. rugsėjo 14 d. naujuoju Darbo kodeksu. Analizuojama sudarymo, vykdymo ir nutraukimo problematika, susijusi darbo santykių saugumo ir lankstumo užtikrinimo pusiausvyrą, taip pat analizuojamas nediskriminavimo principo užtikrinimas, sudarant terminuotas darbo sutartis. Atkreipiamas dėmesys į ES Direktyvos 1999/70/EB numatytus tikslus ir įgyvendinimo priemones siekiant užkirsti kelią piktnaudžiavimui terminuotomis darbo sutartimis. Darbe bus analizuojama Europos Sąjungos (toliau - ES) teisės šaltinius, ES Teisingumo Teismo (toliau - ESTT) praktiką, taip pat ir nacionalinių teismų praktiką. Greitai kintantys ekonominiai, socialiniai veiksniai, taip pat, kaip ir greitas technologijų vystymasis ar kintantys vartotojų poreikiai ir didėjantis paslaugų sektorius, reikalauja pokyčių darbo rinkoje, atsižvelgiant į tai, išaugo poreikis lankstesnėms darbo organizavimo formoms. Atsiranda naujos sutarčių rūšys ir keičiasi jau esančių darbo sutarčių rūšių reguliavimas. Viena iš lanksčių darbo santykių organizavimo formų yra terminuota darbo sutartis, kurios esminis elementas yra laikinumas. Todėl šią sutartimi įforminami terminuoto pobūdžio darbo santykiai, kurių sudarymą, vykdymą ir nutraukimą, reglamentuoja Darbo kodekso (toliau - DK) 109 - 111 straipsniai. Tačiau, Lietuvos Respublikos Seimas 2016 m. rugsėjo 14 d. priėmė naują Darbo kodeksą (toliau - NDK), kuris įsigalios nuo 2017 m. sausio 1 d. Naujame Darbo kodekse įtvirtintas lankstesnis darbo teisinių santykių organizavimas, lyginant su galiojančiu Darbo kodeksu. Naujajame Darbo kodekse terminuotų darbo sutarčių sudarymą, vykdymą ir nutraukimą reglamentuoja skirtingi straipsniai, t. y. 67 – 71 straipsniai. Šiame darbe bus nagrinėjama terminuotos darbo sutarties reglamentavimas galiojančiame Darbo kodekse ir lyginant su 2016 m. rugsėjo 14 d. naujuoju Darbo kodeksu. Analizuojama sudarymo, vykdymo ir nutraukimo problematika, susijusi darbo santykių saugumo ir lankstumo užtikrinimo pusiausvyrą, taip pat analizuojamas nediskriminavimo principo užtikrinimas, sudarant terminuotas darbo sutartis. Atkreipiamas dėmesys į ES Direktyvos 1999/70/EB numatytus tikslus ir įgyvendinimo priemones siekiant užkirsti kelią piktnaudžiavimui terminuotomis darbo sutartimis. Darbe bus analizuojama Europos Sąjungos (toliau - ES) teisės šaltinius, ES Teisingumo Teismo (toliau - ESTT) praktiką, taip pat ir nacionalinių teismų praktiką.
Rapidly changing economic factors, such as growing competition, forcing the employer to decrease production and delivery costs, and social factors, including rapid development of technology or changing consumer needs, growing service sector and other objectives of social character conditioned establishment and higher popularity of certain type of flexible work organisation and labour relations. It requires changes in the labour market with regard to growing demand for more flexible forms of work organisation. New forms of flexible work organisation take place and at the same time change regulation of available forms of flexible work organisation. One of the most widely spread forms of flexible work organisation in the member states of the European Union is the fixed-term employment contract. Aim of the fixed-term employment contract is to assure modern work organisation and flexibility. The main element of the contract is temporary nature of work, which is considered as the prerequisite, when drafting such a contract. In order to protect employee‘s as economically weaker party’s interests within labour relations, Labour Code of the Republic of Lithuania sets regulations and prohibitions to prolong, update or renew fixed-term employment contracts. The main difference between fixed-term employment contract and permanent full-time employment contract is that, in case of fixed-term employment contract, the employer and employee agree on the end date of the employment contract. Fixed-term employment contract is such a contract that is drafted for a certain period of time or for execution of temporary works. With reference to the legal practice of the Supreme Court of the Republic of Lithuania, temporary nature of work cannot be assessed according to employee‘s or employer‘s subjective needs, that is, the contract has to be drafted only in case of objective reasons, serving as the ground for occurrence of temporary nature of work. One of such examples is when one female employee goes on the maternity leave and another employee has to take her place for fixed period of time. This example shows that essence of the fixed-term employment contract is temporary nature of work and agreement between the employee and the employer regarding the end date of the contract. Thus this contract serves as legalisation of temporary labour relations, drafting, execution and termination of which is regulated by Articles 109-111 of the Labour Code of the Republic of Lithuania (hereinafter – the LC RL). Though, on 14 September 2016, Seimas of the Republic of Lithuania adopted a new Labour Code, which is going to take effect on 1 January 2017 . The new Labour Code ensures more flexible legal organisation of work and labour relations, if to be compared with current Labour Code. Drafting, execution and termination of fixed-term employment contracts is regulated by different articles of the new Labour Code, that is, by Articles 67-71. This paper analyse forms of flexible work organisation: fixed-term employment contract in Lithuania and other selected member states of the European Union (France, Germany, and United Kingdom). Trends of forms of flexible work organisation available in the European Union are reviewed. Attention is drawn at the aims provided by the European Union Directive 1999/70/EC Regarding Fixed-Term Employment Contracts and three instruments intended to prevent misuse of fixed-term employment contracts in member states of the European Union, that is, at objective reasons for updating of such contracts or relations, including maximum net duration of fixed-term employment contracts in a row and the number of updates of such contracts or relations. Member states of the European Union can select one or several such instruments; also every country may set additional equivalent instruments that would prevent misuse of fixed-term employment contracts. The paper also reviews topics of drafting, execution and termination of the fixed-term employment contract with regard to assurance of balance between safety of labour relations and flexibility, and analyses assurance of the principle of non-discrimination, when drafting fixed-term employment contracts in the available Labour Code, in comparison to the new Labour Code, adopted on 14 September 2017. Attention is drawn at the legal practice of the Court of Justice of the European Union (hereinafter – the CJEU) and legal practice of national courts, when interpreting concepts of fixed-term employment contracts, as provided in the European Union Directive 1999/70/EC Regarding Fixed-Term Employment Contracts, that is, what is considered as objective reasons or equivalent instruments. The first part of Master Thesis assesses forms and types of flexible work organisation available in the European Union and flexibility trends of fixed-term employment contracts, including the purpose and the main element of the fixed-term employment contract. The second part of Master Thesis assesses regulation of fixed-term employment contracts on the level of the European Union, to be more precise, the European Union Directive 1999/70/EC Regarding Fixed-Term Employment Contracts is analysed together with the main envisaged aims and instruments, preventing misuse of fixed-term employment contracts, including application of the principle of non-discrimination. Regulation of labour relations in selected member states of the European Union, such as France, Germany and the United Kingdom, including transfer of the European Union Directive 1999/70/EC Regarding Fixed-Term Employment Contracts into the national law of these countries, is pointed out. The second part also analyses legal practice of the Court of Justice of the European Union, which interprets provisions and concepts set by the European Union Directive 1999/70/EC Regarding Fixed-Term Employment Contracts, for instance, what is considered as objective reasons to draw a fixed-term employment contract, interpretation of the principle of non-discrimination. The third part of the paper analyses regulation of the fixed-term employment contract within Lithuanian legislation. Provisions of available and the new Labour Code are reviewed. Purpose and the main elements of this contract, temporary nature of work, which in legal practice of Lithuanian courts is defined as essential one, cannot be assessed according to subjective needs. Provisions of the new Labour Code in relation to fixed-term employment contracts are also analysed, comparison in regard to the available Labour Code is carried out, differences and novelties are reviewed. Conclusions reveal topics of fixed-term employment contract within the new Labour Code of the Republic of Lithuania. It is concluded, that Lithuania eliminates the prohibition to draw fixed-term employment contracts for execution of works with non-temporary nature, to be more precise, it eliminates objective reason to draw fixed-term employment contract and this fact shall change legal practice of Lithuanian courts, interpreting objective reasons for drafting a fixed-term employment contract only for execution of work of temporary nature. With reference to the European Union Directive 1999/70/EC Regarding Fixed-Term Employment Contracts, Lithuania in the new Labour Code selects not all instruments preventing misuse of fixed-term employment contracts, that is, it defines only net maximum duration of fixed-term employment contracts in a row as 2 years, in exceptional cases – 5 years. Nevertheless, it clearly defines application of the principle of non-discrimination. Cases, when the contract is considered as fixed-term one and allocation of severance grant is also provided, contrary to the current Labour Code, where severance grants are not envisaged.
Internet: https://eltalpykla.vdu.lt/1/34908
https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/34908
Appears in Collections:2017 m. (TF mag.)

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