Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/34901
Type of publication: master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law (S001)
Author(s): Miliūtė, Karolina
Supervisor: Žižienė, Simona
Title: Ar smurto artimoje aplinkoje bylose taikytinas susitaikymo institutas?
Other Title: Whether the reconciliation institute is applicable in cases of violence in close environment?
Extent: 52 p.
Date: 1-Jun-2017
Event: Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas. Teisės fakultetas
Keywords: Smurtas;Artima aplinka;Susitaikymas;Violence;Close environment;Reconciliation
Abstract: Šio darbo pagrindinis tikslas buvo nustatyti ar smurto artimoje aplinkoje bylose taikytinas susitaikymo institutas. Siekiant atsakyti į darbe iškeltą klausimą, buvo analizuojami įvairūs Lietuvos Respublikos teisės aktai, teismų praktika, mokslinė bei teisinė literatūra, Lietuvos Respublikos Apsaugos nuo smurto artimoje aplinkoje įstatymas, Lietuvos Respublikos prokuratūrų statistiniai duomenys, užsienio šalių teisės aktai. Pirmoje darbo dalyje atskleistas susitaikymo instituto baudžiamojoje teisėje turinys bei samprata, remiantis moksline literatūra bei įvairiais teisės aktais atskleista šio instituto istorinė raida. Remiantis teismų praktika bei baudžiamosios teisės principais aptarti susitaikymo instituto taikymo pagrindai bei sąlygos. Išanalizuotas susitaikymo instituto bei aukos ir kaltininko mediacijos santykis. Taip pat lyginamuoju aspektu aptariama Vokietijos, Lenkijos bei Suomijos valstybių susitaikymo baudžiamajame procese galimybės pagal tose šalyse įtvirtinus įstatymus lyginant su Lietuva. Šioje dalyje paaiškėjo, kad aukos ir kaltininko mediacijos institutas ne tik labai artimas BK 38 str. įtvirtintam susitaikymo institutui, tačiau galėtų būti kaip alternatyva jam, bei užtikrinti efektyvesnį ginčų sprendimo procesą smurto artimoje aplinkoje bylose, nes šiuo atveju taikantis tarpininkauja trečioji nepriklausoma šalis (mediatorius) padedanti šalims pasiekti susitaikymą. Taip pat atskleista, kad artimiausias susitaikymo institutas įtvirtintam Lietuvos BK 38 str. yra Lenkijos BK 66 straipsnyje įtvirtintas, Vokietijos baudžiamasis kodeksas sudaro platesnes galimybes kaltininko ir nukentėjusiojo susitaikymui nei Lietuvos baudžiamieji įstatymai, Suomijoje egzistuojantis susitaikymo institutas yra siauriausiai reglamentuotas visų analizuotų šalių atžvilgiu. Antroji darbo dalis skirta atsakomybės už smurtą artimoje aplinkoje reglamentavimo Lietuvos Respublikos baudžiamajame kodekse analizei, atliktų tyrimų smurto artimoje aplinkoje atvejais Lietuvos Respublikos prokuratūrose statistikos įvertinimui, bei remiantis Kauno miesto apylinkės teisme, bei Kauno apygardos teisme išnagrinėtomis bylomis susitaikymo instituto taikymo smurtinių nusikaltimų bylose analizės (tyrimo) atlikimui prieš ir po „artimos aplinkos“ kaip kvalifikuojančio požymio įtvirtinimo LR BK 140 str. Atlikus tyrimą paaiškėjo, kad daugelis pradėtų ikiteisminių tyrimų dėl smurto artimoje aplinkoje nutraukiami ikiteisminio tyrimo stadijoje įvairiais BPK pagrindais, į kuriuos įeina ir BPK 214 str. 2 d. pagrindas – ikiteisminio tyrimo nutraukimas įtariamajam ir nukentėjusiajam susitaikius, todėl teisminio nagrinėjimo stadiją pasiekia ganėtinai maža dalis smurto artimoje aplinkoje bylų. Šiame darbe iškelta hipotezė pasitvirtino iš dalies, nes įvertinus Lietuvos Respublikos prokuratūrų atliktų tyrimų smurto artimoje aplinkoje atvejais statistiką, bei atlikus išsamią teismų praktikos analizę (tyrimą) skirtingais laikotarpiais, prieš ir po „artimos aplinkos“ kaip kvalifikuojančio požymio atsiradimo LR BK 140 str. atsiskleidė, kad smurto artimoje aplinkoje bylose gali būti taikomas susitaikymo institutas. Tačiau atsižvelgiant į tai, kad šis institutas taikomas ganėtinai formaliai, vien tik paviršutiniškai įvertinant kaltininko atitiktį susitaikymo pagrindams ir sąlygoms, mediacijos proceso metu minėtieji trūkumai galėtų būti pašalinami, taip įgyvendinant atkuriamojo teisingumo idėjas, užtikrinant tiek aukos tiek kaltininko interesus ir išsaugant jų tarpusavio santykius.
The main target of this paper was to define whether the institute for reconciliation is applied in cases related to domestic violence. In order to answer the question arisen in the paper, various legal acts of the Republic of Lithuania, court practice, scientific and legal literature, the Lithuanian Republic Law on Protection from Domestic Violence, statistical data of prosecutors' offices of the Republic of Lithuania were analysed. The paper consists of two sections. The first section discloses the content and the concept of the institute for reconciliation in criminal law, as well as the historical development and the appearance of the institute in legislation of the Republic of Lithuania pursuant to scientific literature and various legal acts. The relation between the institute for reconciliation and victim-offender mediation was analysed. Bases and conditions for applying the institute for reconciliation were discussed in accordance with court practice and the principles in criminal law. As well, possibilities for reconciliation were laid down in criminal procedure in Germany, Poland and Finland in accordance with laws adopted in these countries in comparison with Lithuania. While disclosing the historical development of the institute for reconciliation, it appeared that the origin of the institute for reconciliation comes from the first written legal sources, the institute has been improved for long years, the current criminal law ensures larger possibilities for achievement of reconciliation between an offender and a victim than former laws. As well, this section of the paper revealed that the institute for victim-offender mediation is not only so close to the institute for reconciliation established in Article 38 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Lithuania but it could also be the option for ensuring more effective settlement of disputes in cases related to domestic violence. While assessing experience of foreign countries in application of the institute for reconciliation, we can see that it was disclosed that the most European countries have no institute in their own criminal law similar to discharge from criminal liability upon recondition of an offender with a victim stipulated in Lithuania. Other countries widely apply the well known institute for mediation which means that an offender reconciles with a victim through the intermediation of the special third person – mediator who assists in reconciliation. The institute for discharge from criminal liability upon recondition of an offender with a victim has been established only in legislation of Spain, Poland, Finland and Germany in comparison to other European countries. Upon analysing criminal laws of the aforementioned countries, it was disclosed that the closest institute to the Lithuanian one laid down in Article 38 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Lithuania has been stipulated in Article 66 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Poland. The Criminal Code of Germany insures more possibilities for reconciliation of an offender with a victim than criminal laws of Lithuania, whereas the institute for reconciliation existing in Finland is the least regulated in comparison with all above analysed countries. The second section of the paper is designed for discussing the regulation of liability for domestic violence in the Criminal Code of the Republic of Lithuania, assessment of statistics in investigations of domestic violence gathered by prosecutors' offices of the Republic of Lithuania, and analysing (examining) the application of the institute for reconciliation in cases related to domestic violence heard by the District Court of Kaunas City and the Kaunas County Court before and upon establishment of qualifying characteristics of ‘domestic” in Article 140 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Lithuania. While assessing regulation of liability for domestic violence in the Criminal Code of the Republic of Lithuania, it appeared that the Criminal Code valid till 13 July 2013 did not provide separate qualifying characteristics for domestic violence allowing for acknowledgement of this offence as being more dangerous but upon entering the amended Article 140 of the Criminal Code into force and establishment of the qualifying characteristics in Paragraph 2 of this Article, offences related to domestic violence were allowed to separate from any negligible health impairment or causing physical pain and to attribute them to acts being more dangerous. While reviewing statistics of conducted investigations concerned with domestic violence gathered by prosecutors' offices of the Republic of Lithuania, it appeared that more than one third of investigations instituted with regard to domestic violence is discontinued during pre-trail investigation and does not reach the stage of courts and judicial proceedings in the Republic of Lithuania. While analysing the practice of the District Court of Kaunas City and the Kaunas County Court related to cases concerned with domestic violence from different periods, it was disclosed that frequency in applying the institute for reconciliation is different in each period, in 2011- 2014 this institute was very often applied in court practice, whereas in 2014- 2017 application of this institute in cases concerned with domestic violence was relatively uncommon phenomenon. As well, this research appeared that the institute for reconciliation is not often applied during juridical proceedings because a large part of the reconciliation takes still place during pre-trail investigation and only a small part of cases concerned with domestic violence reaches the stage of judicial proceedings. The hypothesis arisen in this paper was partially confirmed because upon assessment of statistics of conducted investigations concerned with domestic violence gathered by prosecutors' offices of the Republic of Lithuania and detailed analysing (examining) court practice in different periods before and upon establishment of qualifying characteristics of ‘domestic” in Article 140 of the Criminal Code of the Republic of Lithuania, it was disclosed that the institute for reconciliation should be applied in cases related to domestic violence. However, considering the fact that this institute is being applied formally, during mediation dispute, abovementioned limitations could be eliminated, implementing restorative justice idea, ensuring interests and preserving relationship between victim-offender.
Internet: https://eltalpykla.vdu.lt/1/34901
https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/34901
Appears in Collections:2017 m. (TF mag.)

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