Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/34896
Type of publication: Magistro darbas / Master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law
Author(s): Milašius, Simonas
Title: Ar autonominių ginklų panaudojimas nepažeidžia proporcingumo principo?
Other Title: Whether the use of autonomous weapons violates the principle of proportionality?
Extent: 60 p.
Date: 2-Jun-2017
Event: Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas. Teisės fakultetas
Keywords: Autonominiai ginklai;Tarptautinė humanitarinė teisė;Proporcingumo principas;Autonomous weapons;International humanitarian law;Principle of proportionality
Abstract: Šis magistro baigiamasis darbas susideda iš trijų dalių. Pirmoje darbo dalyje analizuojama autonominių ginklų sistemų vystymosi eiga bei jų veikimo principai. Šiuo metu vyriausybės bei privačios įmonės sparčiai vysto autonominius ginklus. Tokie ginklais sugebėtų taikinio aptikimo, pasirinkimo bei puolimo stadijose veikti nepriklausomi bei nevaldomi žmogaus-operatoriaus. Taip pat tokie ginklai galėtų mąstyti ne deterministiniu, o stochastiniu būdu, bei galėtų naudoti dirbtinį intelektą, prisitaikyti prie aplinkos ir mokytis. Antroje darbo dalyje nagrinėjamas proporcingumo principas karo (tarptautinėje humanitarinėje) teisėje, jo elementai ir taikymo praktika, autonominių ginklų naudojimo grėsmes ir galimybes šio principo atžvilgiu bei dabartinio autonominių ginklų teisinio reglamentavimas. Tarptautinė humanitarinė teisė nustato proporcingumo principą, kuris įtvirtina taisyklę prieš kiekvieną puolimą įvertinti to puolimo proporcingumą, t.y. ar atsitiktinė žala, sukelta panaudotos ginkluotos jėgos, neturi akivaizdžiai viršyti tą jėgą naudojant tikėtino pasiekti tiesioginio karinio pranašumo. Kai kurie mokslininkai, teisininkai bei vyriausybinės ir nevyriausybinės institucijos teigia, kad autonominiai ginklai šio principo laikytis nesugebėtų, kadangi puolimo proporcingumo įvertinimas yra itin sudėtingas procesas, kuriam reikia turėti žmogiškąsias savybes. Autonominiai ginklai sugebėtų veikti geriau, tiksliau, efektyviau bei patikimiau negu žmonės. Tačiau yra neatmetama, kad autonominių ginklų programos gali gesti, o jų veikimas gali būti nesuderinamas su tarptautinės humanitarinės teisės principais. Todėl yra svarbu įvertinti bei ištirti, ar autonominiai ginklai galėtų laikytis proporcingumo principo. Trečioje darbo dalyje buvo sudaroma tyrimo metodologija, atliekamas tyrimas bei pateikiamos rekomendacijos, tarptautinės humanitarinės teisės reguliuotojams. Tyrimo būdais buvo pasirinkta kokybinė apklausa bei bylos analizė. Tyrimo metu nustatyta, kad autonominiai ginklai nesugebėtų laikytis proporcingumo principo, kadangi jie neturi žmogiškųjų savybių, reikalingų įvertinti puolimo proporcingumą. Karo teisės reguliuotojams pateikiama rekomendacija nustatyti, kad autonominiai ginklai, negali veikti visiškai savarankiškai karinės galios panaudojimo etape, todėl turi būti prižiūrimi žmogaus. Atlikus visus darbe keliamus uždavinius, darytina išvada, jog autonominiai ginklai nesugebėtų tinkamai pritaikyti proporcingumo principo, todėl ginamasis teiginys: autonominių ginklų panaudojimas pažeidžia proporcingumo principą, pasitvirtino.
This master’s thesis consists of three parts. The first part analyzes the autonomous weapons systems development process and their operating principles. Some early types of weapons, like automatic weapons, which could operate without direct human intervention are being used for a long time. They are mostly to defend certain military objects like ships and bases. Those kind of weapons aren’t able to make a decision on their own, but rather follow a strict pre-programmed software, which tracks the criterions of possible targets, and when all the required criterions are met, the weapon engages in the attack. At the present, governmental and private companies are rapidly developing autonomous weapons. Such weapons would be capable of detecting, selecting and engaging targets independently and uncontrolled by a human operator. Also, autonomous weapons would be able to reason not only in a deterministic manner but also in stochastic. This would give the autonomous weapons an ability to make a decision, which was not pre-programmed in the software, which is controlling their behavior. Autonomous weapons would also be able to use artificial intelligence, adapt to the environment and learn on their own, which raises serious issues not limited to autonomous weapons compatibility with the current international humanitarian law, but also in the moral and ethical field. The second part analyzes the principle of proportionality in the international humanitarian (law of war) law, the elements and the practice of this principle, the possible advantages and threats in using autonomous weapons, and the current legal regulation of autonomous weapons. International humanitarian law imposes the principle of proportionality, which establishes a rule that “Launching an attack which may be expected to cause incidental loss of civilian life, injury to civilians, damage to civilian objects, or a combination thereof, which would be excessive in relation to the concrete and direct military advantage anticipated, is prohibited.” Some scientists, lawyers and governmental and non-governmental organizations claim that the autonomous weapons would not be able to follow this principle because measuring the proportionality of the attack is an extremely complicated process, which requires having human qualities. Nevertheless, the usage of autonomous weapons could give some advantages in the military. Because autonomous weapons do not possess some human qualities like tiredness, hunger, exhaustion, anger, they would be able to perform better, more precise, more efficient and more reliable than people. However, the usage of autonomous weapons poses some threats also. It is not excluded that the autonomous weapons would be using advanced computers, which may experience errors, crashes, viruses, and their performance may not be compatible with the principles of international humanitarian law. Therefore, it is important to evaluate and investigate whether autonomous weapons to comply with the principle of proportionality. Currently, there is no national or international treaty or law, which would ban the development and usage of autonomous weapons in its entirety, however, USA and UK have made official policies, which state, that the usage of autonomous weapons should always be monitored by humans. Some non-governmental organizations, scientists and lawyers, advocate, that the development and usage of such weapons should be banned. The third part covers the research methodology and the investigations and makes recommendations for the international humanitarian law regulators. The chosen methods of the research are a qualitative survey and case analysis. The qualitative survey research found that the autonomous weapons would not be able to comply with the principle of proportionality, because they lack human qualities, like consciousness, will and other reasoning capabilities, needed to evaluate the proportionality of the attack. Also, assessing the proportionality of the attack is one of the most difficult decisions in the battlefield, because the expected military advantage of the attack is constantly changing, it is also contextual and subjective to the commander. The experts also noticed that it is immoral and unethical to give the robots the ability to decide upon the life of a human. Therefore autonomous weapons should only be used under the watch of a human. One of the experts also notified, that the usage of autonomous weapons requires thorough testing and studying. Because of that, the expert couldn’t give the detailed opinion on autonomous weapons. The case analysis concluded, that determining the proportionality of attack is subjective and contextual. Therefore international humanitarian law has no clear standard of proportional attack. Consequently, the author is making a conclusion, that autonomous weapons would not be able to properly assess the proportionality of the military attack. The author is making a recommendation to the regulators of the international humanitarian law, that the autonomous weapons should only be developed and used in the way, that allows the human operator to directly intervene in the process of selecting and engaging the targets. After completing all the tasks of the master’s thesis, it can be concluded that the autonomous weapons would fail to properly assess the principle of proportionality, therefore the claim that the usage of autonomous weapons would violate the principle of proportionality was confirmed.
Internet: https://eltalpykla.vdu.lt/1/34896
https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/34896
Appears in Collections:2017 m. (TF mag.)

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