|Abstract: ||Lietuvoje savo verslą vystančios ir vykdančioms įmonėms, valstybinės institucijos vis dažniau kelia didesnius reikalavimus dėl darbuotojams taikomos darbo drausmės vartojant alkoholį darbo metu ir darbo vietoje. Tačiau nepaisant to, kai kuriose įmonėse vis dar egzistuoja alkoholio vartojimo darbo metu problema, kuri dažnu atveju virsta į nelaimingus atsitikimus darbe. Darbdaviai turi kompetenciją taikyti darbuotojams darbo drausmės priemones, apribojančias alkoholio vartojimą darbo metu ir darbo vietoje, kurios ne visada darbuotojų manymu yra jiems tinkamos.
Šiame darbe nagrinėjami darbdavio ir darbuotojo darbo santykiai, akcentuojant darbdavio pareigą užtikrinti darbuotojo blaivumą darbe, aptariant blaivumo tikrinimo procedūrą. Tyrimo tikslas išanalizuoti darbdavių taikomas darbo drausmės priemones, draudžiančias darbuotojams vartoti alkoholį darbo vietoje ir darbo metu bei atskleisti iš jų kylančius probleminius aspektus, susijusius su garbe ir orumu. Tyrimo eigoje detalizuojami darbdavio ir darbuotojo darbo santykiai, iš to kylančios teisės ir pareigos, aptariamos prevencinės blaivumą darbe užtikrinančios priemonės, kurias darbdavys turi taikyti, kad užtikrintų saugią darbo aplinką darbuotojui.
Siekiant išsiaiškinti ar blaivumo tikrinimo sistemos įdiegimas įmonėje pažeidžia darbuotojo garbę ir orumą buvo nustatytos garbės ir orumo apibrėžtys, atlikus teismų praktikos analizę išskirti faktai, kuriems esant yra pažeidžiami asmens garbė ir orumas. Išanalizavus teismų praktiką neblaivumo tikrinimo sistemos kontekste, atskleisti garbės ir orumo pažeidimo tokios sistemos dalyvavimo problematiką.|
The topic of the final thesis is “Does the installation of the insobriety checking system at the company violate the employee’s honour and dignity?“ The working relations between the employer and the employee are analysed in this work, the employer’s duty to ensure the employee’s sobriety at work is accentuated and the sobriety checking procedure is discussed. The goal of the research is to analyse the means of the working discipline used by the employers that prohibit the employees to drink alcohol in their place of work and during the work as well as reveal the problematic aspects related with honour and dignity.
The following tasks were raised in this work: to analyse the means of the working discipline used by the employers that prohibit the employees to drink alcohol in their place of work and during the work as well as reveal the problematic aspects related with honour and dignity; reveal the aspects existing in the insobriety checking system that may violate honour and dignity; analyse the judicial practice in the context of the insobriety checking system and reveal the relevance of the violation of honour and dignity related with the participation in this kind of system.
The specification and regulation of working relations between the employer and the employee make these relations legal relations involving the rights and duties of the both parties, their implementation and defence. The duty of each party enables demanding the other party to execute its duties. The employee has a duty to perform the work assigned and discussed by the employee and follow the internal order of work and the employer shall provide the employee with the work and working conditions agreed in the labour contract, ensure safe and health-undamaging work etc.
Safe and health working conditions are discussed and specified in the Labour Code of the Republic of Lithuania, Law on the Safety and Health of Employees, Regulations of Investigation and Accounting of Accidents at Work, Regulations of the Committee for the Safety and Health of Employees, List of Dangerous Kinds of Work and other resolutions and legal acts. In order to save the employee’s health and life, the employer takes all preventive measures at work to ensure the safety of work and health.
The insobriety of a person puts in danger other members of the society and prevents the person as a citizen from using his/her rights properly; one of these rights is a right to work. Every employee shall be sober and free from narcotic, toxic or psychotropic substances at work. The employee’s duty enables the employer to take all measures to have sober employees at work and they shall follow the set order and processes. Just the employer’s suspicion or thinking that his/her employee is drunk is insufficient – it shall comply with the described and provided factors that enable drawing a conclusion: the employee is drunk. The following essential signs related with the employee’s insobriety or intoxication are emphasized: smell of alcohol from the mouth, inadequate behaviour, non-coordinated moves, instable posture and other signs. The fact of insobriety (intoxication) at the company is determined on the basis of readings of the alcotester and other means of determination of insobriety and intoxication. In case the fact of insobriety is determined, the employer shall remove the employee from work in order to preserve the health of his/her employees and make the environment safe.
The basis of removal is the information obtained or received by the employer or an official report confirming that the employee is drunk or under the influence of psychotropic substances. The main reason for disagreeing with the insobriety or intoxication by the employees is that they do not get a salary for the day of being removed from work and an official report about an outrage against the working discipline that can also cause serious consequences – dismissal.
Considering the explanations of honour and dignity, it can be concluded that honour is obtained and dignity is a natural integral human right that cannot be removed or violated by anybody. The violation of personal honour and dignity in the civil right is caused by disclosing the data and the disclosed data does not comply with the reality and humiliates personal honour and dignity. The act is indicated that is committed on purpose or negligently, i.e., the spread of data humiliating personal honour and dignity in relation with the incompliance of the data with the reality. In case the employer states the employee is drunk, he/she shall prove it with facts. Facts are based with information that was checked and confirmed as compliant with the reality. It is important to identify the spread knowledge about the person, whose honour and dignity were really violated and not apparently violated. The employer must be sure that the employee is sober so that the working functions are performed properly and the working relations between the employer and the employee are not damaged. In case of a suspicion, the employer is entitled to check the employee’s sobriety and inform appropriate employees of the company by spreading information about the employee’s insobriety at work. This act is a working function and not a deliberate act to disclose information. The transfer of this information is not a self-purpose spread, but an obligatory act in order to execute the employer’s decision and ensure smooth work at the company. In case the employee thinks these acts violate his/her honour and dignity, he/she shall prove it and the employer is entitled to provide the facts substantiating the information disclosed by him/her. By disclosing information, the employer executes his/her direct duties, i.e., ensures safe and health-innocuous working environment, so the employee has a duty to be sober at work and agree to be checked for insobriety; it does not violate any essential natural human rights. Thus, the sobriety checking procedure set by the Government does not violate any constitutional values, such as honour and dignity.