|Abstract: ||Galima būtų tradiciškai teigti, kad laidavimas, nuo Romos laikų Europoje plačiai taikoma prievolių įvykdymo užtikrinimo būdas, taikomas ir Lietuvoje, jei ne Finansų krizės laikotarpiu padidėjęs asmenų, nepajėgiančių įvykdyti prisiimtas prievoles, skaičius, nukentėję tokių asmenų kreditorių ir valstybės interesai. Be to, Finansų krizės metu ir po jos praktikoje taikomas laidavimo institutas susidūrė su naujais iššūkiais, kai Lietuvos teismai, nagrinėjantys civilines bylas dėl laidavimo prievolių neįvykdymo, negalėjo iš karto tinkamai suformuoti teismų praktikos, aiškinantis, ar laidavimas yra terminuotas, jei laiduotojo sutartyje su kreditoriumi numatyta, kad laiduotojas atsako kreditoriui už skolininką iki visiško skolininko prievolių kreditoriui įvykdymo. Siekiant padaryti tinkamą išvadą, ar teismai tinkamai formuoja teismų praktiką, aiškinantis, ar laidavimas yra terminuotas, jei laiduotojo sutartyje su kreditoriumi numatyta, kad laiduotojas atsako kreditoriui už skolininką iki visiško skolininko prievolių kreditoriui įvykdymo, teko magistro darbe visų pirma atskleisti ne laidavimo, kaip prievolių įvykdymo užtikrinimo būdo, samprata Lietuvos teisėje, bet pažvelgti į Civilinės teisė sampratą, jos šaltinius, reguliavimo dalyką ir metodus, teisėjo padėtį civilinėje teisėje ir moralę. Ir tik tada vieną darbo dalį skirti atskirų su laidavimu susijusių klausimų, iš kurių esminis yra sutarties sudarymas, analizei. Skirti atitinkamą dėmesį laiduotojo atsakomybės klausimams. Atsižvelgti, kad nagrinėjami įstatyme įtvirtinti laidavimo pabaigos pagrindai bei problemos, su kuriomis susiduriama sprendžiant laidavimo pabaigos klausimus. Prisiminti, kad Civiliniame kodekse tiesiogiai įtvirtinta papročiai kaip civilinių santykių reguliavimo priemonė.|
It can be traditionally argued that since Roman times guaranteeing in Europe has been a widely used way of securing obligations, which is also applied in Lithuania, however the increased number of persons unable to meet their obligations during the financial crisis has affected the interests of the creditors and state. In addition, during the financial crisis and after it the guaranteeing institute applied in practice has faced with new challenges when the Lithuanian courts, which deal with civil cases concerning failure to fulfill the guaranteeing obligations, could not immediately properly form the case law when explaining if the guaranteeing is fixed-term when the agreement of the guarantor with the creditor provides that the guarantor is responsible for the debtor to the creditor till the full implementation of the debtor's obligations to the creditor. In order to draw a proper conclusion as to whether the courts properly form the case law when solving if the guaranteeing is fixed-term when the agreement of the guarantor with the creditor provides that the guarantor is responsible for the debtor to the creditor till the full implementation of the debtor's obligations to the creditor, the Master thesis, in particular, has revealed not the concept of guaranteeing as a way to ensure the obligations in the Lithuanian law, but has looked at the concept in the civil law, the sources, the subject matter and methods, the judge’s situation in the civil law and morality. After that one part of the thesis has been devoted to the analysis of the individual issues related to the guaranteeing, including the main issue relating to the role of the award of a contract. The thesis has taken into account the problems and the fundamentals of the end of the guaranteeing established in the law in dealing with the issues related to the end of the guaranteeing. The thesis has also looked at the customs established in the Civil Code as the measure for regulation of civil relations.
Guarantees are one marketed Collateral measures in favor of both natural and legal persons civilian circulation to take place. Guarantees especially important financially strong enough, but good personal and business reputation with natural or legal persons. In order to bail as a measure to ensure the fulfillment of obligations to be implemented, it is sufficient to persuade the debtor to the creditor the surety of personal reliability and agree on a warranty guarantor. Surety sufficient to realize a simple written form of bailouts for their solidarity is attractive to the creditor, the creditor the surety liable with all its assets. Guarantees by their nature, due to the fact that between the guarantor and the borrower usually there are more than formal relationship, so this fact implies greater and more effective protection of the creditor is marketed. For this reason, the guarantee is one of the most civil circulation occurring in the discharge of obligations of collateral.
It should be noted that most often encountered in the civil circulation, gratuitous bail because, as already mentioned, the debtor and surety commonly linked persons. Surety, by agreeing to answer a debtor gratuitously for the borrower is not met or incorrectly executed obligations to creditors, basically assume all the negative consequences that arise or may arise from the debtor to the creditor are not fulfilled or improperly fulfilled the obligation, but for it does not receive any bonuses. Thus, the guarantor, assuming the obligation to answer the debtor to the creditor, is highly responsible to assess the extent of the guarantee and the deadline. Especially important guarantor is a clear need and knowledge on a warranty period.
Research object. The object of research - the essence of CK and norms that define the essence of a surety, fixed-term and indefinite surety end.
Research methods. Theoretical study. Applicable logical, systematic analysis, comparative, linguistic methods. Presentation of the study and interpretation will be analyzed in Lithuanian case law development, the courts dealing with the question of whether bail is fixed, if the surety agreement with the creditor provides that the guarantor is responsible for the debtor to the creditor until the full execution debtor's obligations to the creditor, and the case-law consequences.
The aim. Taking into account the case law, the surety, which the surety contract agreed with the condition that the guarantee is valid until the full obligations under the main contract execution, the possibility to discuss the warranty expiry, if the debtor sued if it terminated the contract because of his fault, is quite difficult. It can be concluded that the prevailing case law trends are completely useless guarantor, protected only the creditor's rights.
The goal - a detailed examination of the surety institute legal regulation, the interpretation and application of the case law, to identify and analyze the surety of legal relations regulation and application and interpretation problems: the guarantee of legal relationship between the identification, separation from other securing obligations institutes and the application together with other institutes issues , guarantor rights of insufficient consolidation and defense issues, as well as the Civil Code, which enshrines the guarantee institution, governing rules and case law interpreting, but also in developing new rules for the guarantee in legal relations, relationship problems surety legal relations in the development and application of the process - to determine whether bail is term, if the surety agreement with the creditor provides that the guarantor is responsible for the debtor to the creditor until the full execution debtor's obligations to the creditor? Based on the findings presented in the flowing recommendations and conclusions and check the hypothesis.