Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/34622
Type of publication: Magistro darbas / Master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law
Author(s): Mogodia, Mariana
Title: Ar nominaliam įmonės vadovui gali kilti atsakomybė dėl netinkamo bendrovės valdymo?
Other Title: The nominal head of the company may be held liable for improper management of the company
Extent: 55 p.
Date: 1-Jun-2017
Event: Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas. Teisės fakultetas
Keywords: Nominalus vadovas;Fiktyvus vadovas;Vadovo civilinė atsakomybė;Akcininko atsakomybė;Nominee director;Shareholder;Head of the company;Civil liability
Abstract: Šiame darbe nagrinėjami ir analizuojami nominalaus vadovo teisiniai santykiai užsienio valstybėse bei Lietuvoje. Skyriaus pradžioje, apžvelgsime nominalaus vadovo pareigų turinį, bei šiek tiek detaliau paanalizuosime tris direktorių pareigas, būtent pareigą vengti interesų konflikto, pareigą priimti nešališkus sprendimus ir pareigą skatinti sėkmingą bendrovės veiklą. Potencialūs konfliktai su kiekviena šių pareigų lengvai pastebimi realioje verslo aplinkoje, kurioje, kaip tikimasi, kad nominalus direktorius bent jau atsižvelgs į jį paskyrusio asmens interesus. Šiame skyriuje pademonstruosime, kad teisinė sistema pereina nuo absoliutistinio požiūrio, kai direktoriui apskritai nebuvo suteikiama teisė atsižvelgti į jį paskyrusio asmens interesus, prie požiūrio, kuomet direktoriui jau leidžiama paisyti šių išorinių interesų ir siekti jų bent jau esant bendrovės ir paskyrusio asmens interesų tapatumui. Tokiomis aplinkybėmis direktorių pareigą veikti bendrovės interesais nusveria pareiga ginti bendrovės kreditorių interesus. Tai užtraukia pasekmes nominaliesiems direktoriams, ypač tiems, kurie buvo paskirti akcininkų, kadangi tokiomis aplinkybėmis mažai tikėtina, jog direktoriaus pareigos kreditoriams bus suderinamos su jį paskyrusio asmens interesais. Antroje šio darbo dalyje bus analizuojami Lietuvos teisės aktuose įtvirtinti juridinio asmens valdymo organai, jų ypatumai. Juridiniai asmenys įgyja civilines teises, prisiima civilines pareigas ir jas įgyvendina per savo organus, kurie sudaromi ir viekia pagal įstatymus. Ši norma tiesiog apibrėžia, kad juridinio asmens organai vykdo juridinio asmens atstovavimo funkciją ex officio – be atskiro įgaliojimo. Bendrovės vadovas yra privalomas bet kurios bendrovės organas. Nesant juridinio asmens organų, atitinkamas susivienijimas net negalėtų būti juridinis asmuo, nes neturėtų vieno iš svarbiausių juridinio asmens požymių: galėjimo įgyti teises ir pareigas savo vardu bei tam tikros organų sistemos (organizacinio vieningumo). Įmonių valdymas apima valdymo bei kontrolės sistemą, vadovybės, valdybos, akcininkų ir kitų suinteresuotųjų asmenų santykių visumą. Trečioje darbo dalyje analizuojama nominalaus vadovo sąvoka Lietuvoje, bei kodėl gi yra skiriami į vadovo pareigas nominalus vadovai. Verslo praktikoje egzistuoja tokie atvejai, kai į bendrovės vadovo pareigas paskiriamas fiktyvus direktorius, kurio pagrindinė funkcija yra neteisėti veiksmai. Tikrieji naudų gavėjai dažnais atvejais paskyria asocialius asmenys įmonių vadovais, siekdami išsaugoti bendrovių turtą bei išvengti mokesčių valstybei. ,,Asocialūs“ asmenys būdami fiktyviais juridinių asmenų vadovais neatlieka jokių vadovavimo funkcijų, nepasirašo su įmonės veiklą sudarytų sutarčių, nevykdo kasdienės įmonės veiklos, neskiria bei neatleidžia įmonės darbuotojų. Lietuvos Aukščiausiajam Teismui suformulavus taisyklę, kad įmonės vadovo (vienasmenio ar kolegialaus) civilinė atsakomybė gali atsirasti tiek įmonei, kai įmonės vadovas veikia priešingai įmonės interesams, tiek ir tretiesiems asmenims, kai įmonės vadovas pažeidžia apribojimus, nustačius tam tikras trečiųjų asmenų teisių apsaugos garantijas.
This work describes the deals and the analysis of the nominal head of the legal relationship between foreign countries and Lithuania. In the beginning of this chapter, before analyzing the legal system's response to the complex conflict between the reality of the business environment and the legal obligations, let‘s review the responsibilities of the Director of nominal content, which is likely to be damaged by the nominee director. In the first chapter we‘ll have a little more detailed analysis of the three director positions, especially the duty to avoid conflicts of interest, the duty to exercise independent judgment and the duty to promote the success of the company's activities. Potential conflicts with each of those obligations clearly visible in a real business environment, in which, as expected, at least to take into account the interests of the appointing person. In this section we will demonstrate that the legal system moves from an absolutist approach, when the head of a company was not entitled to take into account the interests of the appointing person, to an approach in which the director has been allowed to heed these external interests and pursue them, at least having company‘s and his appointed person‘s interest in it. In such conditions, the director‘s approach to support company‘s interests outweights the posibility to defend it‘s creditor‘s interests. This entails consequences to nominal directors, especially to those who have been appointed by the shareholders, because in such conditions it is unlikely that the director's responsibilities to creditors will be compatible with the interests of the person, who appointed him. The idea of nominal heads became popular for loans opportunities, which are provided by financial institutions. Nominee Director – the director, who is appointed to be a person who represents his appointer‘s interests in the Board of Directors. He can be appointed by shareholder, creditor, or by any other joint owner. The director just signs the paperwork without considering if specific action meets the company‘s needs. Nominee director‘s and shareholder‘s coverage is in the agreement, which does not prohibit such agreements, or in the relevant laws, that are applicable to public financial institutions or bank. Nominee director and shareholder service is used to ensure the highest degree of confidentiality. The nominee director is expected to defend the interests of the financial institutions, of with he is. In the second part of this work we will analyze the entity of governing bodies and their features established by Lithuanian legislation. Legal persons acquire civil rights, assume civil duties and implement them through their institusions that are formed and are executed in accordance with the law. This rule simply defines that the legal personality bodies carries out legal person representation function of ex officio – without special authorization. CR 2.82 Article 2 states that any legal person must have sole or collegial executive body and the entrys general meeting, if the corporation‘s legal entities and it‘s statute does not provide such management structure. Governing bodies may be established when the are more than one founder. Lithuanian companies may have even four-levels of management: Director (manager), the director‘s board, the supervisory board and the shareholders' meeting. The company‘s manager is the mandatory body of any company. The Lithuanian Supreme Court had to deal with person management organ significance repeatedly emphasized in its case time and again. One of the LSC (Lithuanian Supreme Court) orders stated that without a body, a legal person generally can not exercise their rights or perforce their duties. In the absence of legal personality the respective bodies can not even be a legal person, because they would‘t have the most important legal personal attributes: the ability to acquire rights and obligations in its own name, and certain organ systems (organizational unity). It can be said in summary, that corporate governance includes both, the management and the control system, the management, board, shareholders and other stakeholders etnity. The head of the company is the binding body in any company. In case, if a company has a single-stage structure of management, the liability for the improper management functionality is implemented to the one, who is the single management body. If the company's management structure is multilevel, then the head of the company is one of many of subjects of responsibility. In practice, there are three main different legal person management system - one-tier, two-tier and mixed. Lithuania is attributed to countries with a mixed system. Lithuania does not have established pattern and formed management traditions, but it is compared to management models of German-type system of corporate governance model with a clear separated management functions. However, it could be argued that the legal person management - a system through which the legal entity is managed and controlled. The third part we analyze the nominal head‘s concept in Lithuania, who appoints them and what are the intentions of real beneficiaries to the designation what the designation are. The Republic of Lithuania Civil Code (CC) 2.87, paragraph 7 states that a board of members of the body, defaulting or improperly carrying out the duties specified in the Civil Code or instruments of incorporation must obtain compensation legal entity entirely. LSC (Lithuanian Supreme Court) emphasizes that in such cases the participant acts as a figurehead and must take responsibility as a leader, a.e. it must be applied to the management bodies of civil liability standard.
Internet: https://eltalpykla.vdu.lt/1/34622
https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/34622
Appears in Collections:2017 m. (TF mag.)

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