Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/34585
Type of publication: Magistro darbas / Master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law
Author(s): Baltokas, Paulius
Title: Ar „gerai besimokančio piliečio“ samprata nepažeidžia teisės į LR Konstitucijoje užtikrintą nemokamą mokslą?
Other Title: Does the concept of "good learner person" not prejudice the right to free education defined by Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania?
Extent: 51 p.
Date: 1-Jun-2017
Event: Vytauto Didžiojo universitetas. Teisės fakultetas
Keywords: Nemokamas aukštasis mokslas;Konstitucinis teismas;Teisė į nemokamą mokslą;Free higer education;Constitution;Right to free higher education
Abstract: Konstitucinis teismas gerai besimokančio studento sampratą aiškino net 6 kartus skirtinguose nutarimuose. Šiame darbe siekiama sistemingai apžvelgti ir apibendrinti visus Konstitucinio teismo nutarimus. Taip pat aptarti suformuotą oficialią konstitucinę doktriną nemokamo aukštojo mokslo gerai besimokantiems piliečiams klausimu, išskiriant pagrindines suformuotas nuostatas bei normas. Paskutinis išaiškinimas įvyko 2014 metų lapkričio mėnesį. Tuo tarpu naujas gerai besimokančio apibrėžimas Mokslo ir studijų įstatyme (MSĮ) buvo apibrėžtas tik 2016 m. Apžvelgiant Konstitucinio teismo nutarimus, didelis dėmesys skiriamas susijusių konstitucinių normų, kurios prieštarauja viena kitai, sąveikos išaiškinimui. Analizuojama, kaip valstybės užsakymas, pagal visuomenės suformuotą poreikį, turi sąveikauti su konstitucine norma, kad gerai besimokantiems piliečiams aukštosiose mokyklose būtų laiduojamas nemokamas aukštasis mokslas. Apžvelgiant MSĮ aiškinamasi, kaip įstatymų leidėjas sugebėjo sugretinti ir surasti balansą tarp dviejų konstitucinių normų, kurios prieštarauja tarpusavyje. Ar įstatymo leidėjui pavyko rasti balansą tarp valstybės užsakymo, pagal visuomenės suformuotą poreikį ir gerai besimokančio studento teisę į nemokamą mokslą, yra pagrindinis tikslas analizuojant naujos redakcijos MSĮ. Dėmesys darbe yra skiriamas apžvelgti ir kitus MSĮ numatytus finansavimo mechanizmus, kurie, tiesiogiai arba netiesiogiai, susiję su konstitucinės teisės į nemokamą mokslą gerai besimokantiems studentams užtikrinimu. Aptariamas valstybės remiamų paskolų bei už studijų kainą sumokėtos sumos kompensacijos mechanizmas. Šiais dviem mechanizmais, įstatymų leidėjas siekia įtvirtinti Konstitucinio teismo oficialioje doktrinoje nustatytas normas dėl nemokamo mokslo gerai besimokantiems piliečiams. Nauja įstatymo redakcija privers aukštąsias mokyklas daryti pakeitimus vidinėse tvarkose, susijusiose su studentų vertinimu ir jų studijų finansavimu. Šios tvarkos yra ypatingai svarbios studentams, siekiantiems gauti arba išlaikyti valstybės finansuojamą vietą. Pačios įstatymo nuostatos ir jų atsiradimas sukėlė nemažai diskusijų valstybėje dėl jo tolimesnio taikymo. Labai svarbu, jog įstatymo suformuotos nuostatos, normos ir vertybės būtų tinkamai perkeltos į aukštąsias mokyklas. Analizuojant įstatymo nuostatas ir pasiruošimą jas taikyti aukštosiose mokyklose, darbe siekiama atsakyti į klausimą ar visi Lietuvos studentai turės lygias teises siekti nemokamo aukštojo mokslo garantuoto Konstitucijoje, nepriklausomai nuo aukštosios mokyklos, studijų programos ar studijų finansavimo formos. Tai daroma peržvelgiant laikinąsias aukštųjų mokyklų tvarkas ir studijas reglamentuojančius dokumentus. Apžvelgiant šiuos dokumentus, dėmesys skiriamas rezultatų apibendrinimui ir priskyrimui atitinkamam pasiekimų lygmeniui, stengiantis nustatyti ar studentas atitinka gerai besimokančio piliečio apibrėžimą. Darbe pateikiamos išvados ir rekomendacijos įstatymų leidėjui ir vykdomajai valdžiai dėl galimų pakeitimų ar papildomų veiksmų, siekiant užtikrinti lygias studentų teisęs į nemokamą aukštąjį mokslą, nepriklausomai nuo aukštosios mokyklos, studijų programos ar studijų finansavimo formos.
Quality of higher education and its accessibility is an integral part of the public life, its changes and development. Debates on whether higher education should be free-of-charge or not is an old global discussion. United States of America have chosen the path of free higher education, meanwhile most of the Europe has taken a more moderate position, even without a specific provision in constitutions, as it is indicated in Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania that higher education at State schools should be free-of-charge. However, even in those countries, whose constitutions make a reference to a free higher education, de facto situation demonstrates that it is not adopted to its full extent or it is done with exceptions. Lithuania is no exception and one of the most discussed questions in the Constitutional Court was free of charge education for well-learning citizens. Since 2002, when Lithuanian higher education system was complemented by colleges the number of students has generally increased. Because of the demographic boom and additional higher education places in colleges, the state was unable to grant free of charge higher education. Constitutional Court of Lithuania has interpreted the concept of well- learning student for a total of six times. The purpose of this research paper is to systematically review and summarise all the rulings of the Constitutional Court that are related to free-of-charge higher education. Moreover, it aims to discuss official constitutional doctrine of free higher education for well-learning citizens with an emphasis on the basic provisions and norms. Paper provides examples of several states, in order to demonstrate how the accessibility and funding of higher education, which is defined by constitution, is acting de facto. Moreover, necessity of the Constitutional interpretation is reviewed, as well as positive Constitutional legislation, which is relevant to understanding interpretations of Constitutional Court of Lithuania. The review of rulings of Constitutional Court focuses on interpretation of interactions of constitutional norms which oppose one another. How the state order which is created in accordance with public demand, has to interact with constitutional norms in order to guarantee free-of-charge higher education for well-learning citizens. Moreover, it is aimed to analyse the dependence of state-funded place and results of an accession to higher education institution. This research paper reviews rulings of the Constitutional Court, that highlights specific moments when student receives and when loses a state-funded place. It is discussed presumptions and circumstances of such actions, analysed the importance of whether the student was enrolled to state-funded or state non-funded studies and part of his/her studies was self-funded for the free-of-charge higher education, in accordance with official doctrine of constitutional court. The latest interpretation of Constitutional Court occurred on November, 2014. Meanwhile, the new definition of a good student in the Law on Science and Studies was introduced only in 2016. In the previous versions of Law on Science and Studies the definition of a well-learning student focused on average level of grades. Newest version of Lithuanian Law on Science and Studies defines a well-learning person as a student, who has reached corresponding knowledge level, but not the one who has a specific grade average. In this way, law encodes new paradigm of student evaluation in higher education institutions, shifting from grades to evaluation of level of achievements as interpreted in the recommendations and agreements of Bologna Accord. By reviewing the Law on Science and Studies it is analysed how legislature managed to compare and balance two constitutional norms, which are contradictory in themselves. The major goal of analysis of new version of the Law on Science and Studies is to examine whether legislature was successful in finding balance between the order of the state, established in accordance with public needs, and the right of well-learning student for free-of-charge studies. The paper also reviews other funding mechanisms, identified in Law on Science and Studies that are directly or indirectly related to constitutional right to free education for well-learning students. It is also discussed the State-supported loans for students and mechanism of reimbursement of a part of the cost of studies. By using those two mechanisms legislature aims to consolidate official doctrines established by constitutional court. Naturally, the new system raises issues of its application. Considering that in Lithuania student rotation was not implemented for last two years. Moreover, new version of the law will force higher education institutions to perform changes in their inner policies that are related to students’ evaluation and funding of their studies. These policies are particularly important to students who are seeking to obtain or maintain state-funded place. The legislative provisions have given rise to various debates in the state level which focused on its further application. Therefore, it is very important that legally drafted provisions, norms and values would be effectively transposed in the higher education institutions. It is clear, that it is very important to review not only how law seeks to advance the official doctrine of Constitutional Court in a new way, but also how higher education institutions are preparing themselves for implementation of this law. In the past, there have been cases, when law rules in higher education institutions are treated differently and this creates unequal opportunities to students to pursue constitutional right to free-of-charge studies. Obviously, this infringes students’ rights and expectation and also discredits existing arrangements. During the implementation of the system’s changes it is necessary to avoid such cases, therefore it is essential to do a prior analysis of the situation. This helps to prevent any possible interpretations of higher education institutions, which in one way or another provides unequal opportunities to students to pursue the constitutional right to free-of-charge studies. By analysing provisions of the law and preparedness to apply it in the higher education institutions this research paper aims to reply to the question whether Lithuanian students will have equal rights to gain free-of-charge higher education, which is guaranteed by Constitution irrespective to higher education institution, study programme or form of study funding. It is done by looking up the temporary procedures of higher education institutions and study regulatory documents. On a review of these documents it is summarised the results and its attribution to corresponding skill level, for the purpose of determining whether student meets the term of well-learning student. It is also presented comparison of hypothetical situations on how different calculation methodologies could lead to divergent results for two different students who are in the identical situation. Paper includes conclusions and recommendations for legislature and executive authority on possible changes and additional actions, in order to ensure equal opportunities to students to pursue the constitutional right to free-of-charge studies irrespective to higher education institution, study programme or form of study funding.
Internet: https://eltalpykla.vdu.lt/1/34585
https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/34585
Appears in Collections:2017 m. (TF mag.)

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