Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/108533
Type of publication: master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law (S001)
Author(s): Kryžiokaitė, Justina
Supervisor: Giedraitis, Algirdas
Title: Elektroninių įrodymų rinkimo teisinio reguliavimo problematika
Other Title: Problematic of legal regulation of the collection of electronic evidence
Extent: 46 p.
Date: 19-Jun-2020
Keywords: Faktiniai duomenys;Actual data;Įrodymai;Evidence;Įrodymų teisė;The law of evidence;Elektroniniai duomenys;Electronic data;Elektroniniai įrodymai;Electronic evidence
Abstract: 2019 03 08 Briuselyje vykusioje Teisingumo ir vidaus reikalų taryboje ES valstybių narių teisingumo ministrai daugiausia dėmesio skyrė e. įrodymų rinkimo klausimams. Tai leidžia pagrįstai teigti, kad elektroniniai įrodymai ir racionalus tokių įrodymų rinkimo teisinis reglamentavimas yra aktualus tiek nacionaliniu, tiek tarptautiniu lygiu. Elektroniniais įrodymais bendriausia prasme galima laikyti faktinius elektroninius (skaitmeninius) duomenis, gautus įstatymo nustatyta tvarka, kurie patvirtina arba paneigia bent vieną reikšmingą faktinę aplinkybę ir turi reikšmės teismui priimant sprendimą dėl reikšmingų aplinkybių buvimo arba nebuvimo. Tai reiškia, kad elektroninių įrodymų rinkimo teisinis reglamentavimas yra tiesiogiai susijęs efektyviu pažeistų asmens teisių, teisėtų interesų bei lūkesčių atkūrimu. Tačiau elektroninių įrodymų termino ir jo sąvokos nebuvimas Lietuvos teisėje bei tokių įrodymų sampratų įvairovė teisės literatūroje, galimai lemia elektroninių įrodymų rinkimo teisinio reguliavimo problematiką. Be to, šiame darbe siekiama taip pat ištirti ar esamas teisinis reguliavimas Lietuvoje užtikrina elektroninių įrodymų rinkimo bei pateikimo teismui ar ES valstybėms narėms galimybes. Manytina, kad moksliniai tyrimai, susiję su elektroninių įrodymų rinkimo teisiniu reguliavimu Lietuvoje, yra itin aktualūs, įvertinus tai, kad šalyje aiškiai būtini pokyčiai šioje srityje teisės spragoms taisyti. Pirmoje darbo dalyje analizuojami elektroninių įrodymų apibrėžimai teoriniu ir praktiniu aspektu, įvardijami pagrindiniai jų bruožai, ieškoma tokių įrodymų apibrėžties Lietuvos teisės aktuose. Ši analizė suteikia bendrą elektroninių įrodymų suvokimą, atsižvelgiant į tokių įrodymų savybes bei ypatumus, taip pat suteikia galimybę nustatyti ir identifikuoti pagrindinius teisinius aspektus tokių įrodymų rinkimo procese. Darbo antroje ir trečioje dalyse, kuri padalinta į elektroninių įrodymų rinkimo teisinį reglamentavimą Lietuvoje ir ES teisės aktuose atlikta analizė padėjo nustatyti teisės aktų trūkumus bei identifikuoti jų nepakankamumą. Darbe sistemiškai taikoma tarptautinės teisės teorijos ir praktikos analizė leido įvertinti ar užsienio valstybių teisinio reglamentavimo pavyzdžius, siekiant pasiaiškinti Lietuvos teisinio elektroninių įrodymų rinkimo teisinio reglamentavimo problematiką.
The widespread use of computer and network technologies in the modern information society determines that social relationships of various kinds and in diverse fields are inevitably carried out in the cyberspace via electronic means of communication. The information society is an electronic society that switches from the traditional forms of communication and the ways of provision of services to alternative, cheaper, faster ways. The advantages of technological progress are evident, namely, the speed of all processes and rapid outcome which is generally associated with social welfare. However, the acceleration of technological development and the progress in the use of technological means are an integral part of various kinds of conflicts and disputes over the violated rights, legitimate interests and expectations of individuals, as disagreements are a fundamental part of human nature and the Internet provides access to an immense number of potential victims for interactive deceptions. The relevance and novelty of this paper is determined by the fact that the specified relations often have legal significance and the law must ensure the legal certainty and clarity of these relations and, if required, the protection of the legitimate interests of their participants by legal means in the process of proof. As it is known, the process of proof would be impossible without the evidence provided by the parties (the participants in the proceedings), as only these data enable the court to ascertain the presence or absence of certain factual circumstances. In this context, the admissibility of electronic evidence in the process of proof is of extreme importance. For these reasons, the paper examines the issue that has recently been of fundamental importance to both the theoreticians of law and its practitioners, i.e. what data can be considered as electronic evidence and how to ensure the lawfulness of collecting such evidence, which is directly related to the reliability and significance of such evidence in proving. Developing the topic, the aim was to reveal the problem of the absence of the concept of electronic evidence in Lithuania, which clearly presupposes the problem of the admissibility of such evidence. The individual problems of electronic evidence in the process of proof have been studied at the scientific level before, however, in a fragmented way, and the analysis of the legal literature allows to make a reasonable statement that electronic evidence can in general be considered as any actual electronic data received in accordance with the procedure established by the law that confirm or deny at least one significant factual circumstance and are relevant to the court’s decision on the presence or absence of significant circumstances. This means that the legal regulation of the collection of electronic evidence is directly related to the effective restoration of violated rights, legitimate 5 interests, and expectations of the individuals. However, the absence of the term (concept) of electronic evidence in the Lithuanian legal acts undoubtedly determines the problem of legal regulation for the collection of such evidence. Meanwhile, at the Justice and Home Affairs Council that was held in Brussels on 08 March 2019, the Ministers of Justice of the EU Member States focused on the issues of collection of electronic evidence. This makes it reasonable to argue that electronic evidence and the regulatory framework for its collection are relevant at both national and international levels. Therefore, during this period the research work related to the legal regulation of electronic evidence collection in Lithuania is extremely relevant, considering that changes are clearly required to correct a legal vacuum in this area in the country. Thus, this paper aims to investigate whether the existing legal framework in Lithuania ensures the possibilities for collecting and submitting electronic evidence to the court and the EU Member States. In view of the above, it must be assumed that this topic has not lost its relevance and importance. The research approaches. Systematic, comparative, logical, and historical approaches have been mainly employed in the paper, not excluding the possibility of applying other approaches. The legal regulation of electronic evidence collection is examined as a part of the legal system, assessing its relationship with other elements of this system. In addition to the approaches listed above, the other approaches of research are also applied, i.e. the approach of document analysis is used to specify the concepts, to analyse the sources of law, their content, operating entities and their competence; linguistic approach is applied to study the sources in the aspect of grammar, semantics, and other aspects; the approach of critical analysis helps to establish the shortcomings and advantages of the legal regulation of electronic evidence collection. The aim of the research. It aims to identify the main legal problems arising in the process of collecting of electronic evidence and to present possible solutions to these problems, following the analysis of the legal framework for the collection of electronic evidence in Lithuania. Hypothesis. The current legal framework for the collection of electronic evidence in Lithuania does not fully ensure the possibilities for the exercising of the rights of the individuals. The objectives of the research: 1) to analyse the concept of electronic evidence in theoretical and practical aspects, to evaluate the problem of the absence of the definition of electronic evidence; 2) to examine the peculiarities of the legal regulation of electronic evidence collection in the context of the legal regulation of evidence collection established by the Lithuanian legal acts; 3) to identify the main problems of legal regulation of electronic evidence collection and to formulate proposals for the improvement of legal regulation in the Lithuanian justice in this area. 6 The first part of the paper analyses the definitions of electronic evidence in theoretical and practical aspects, names its main features, and searches for the concept of such evidence in the Lithuanian legal acts. This analysis provides general understanding of electronic evidence, having regard to the characteristics and peculiarities of such evidence, as well as the possibility to establish and identify the main legal aspects in the process of collecting such evidence. The analysis performed in the second and the third part of the paper, which deals with the legal regulation of electronic evidence collection in Lithuania and in the legal acts of the European Union, helped to establish the shortcomings in the legal acts and to identify their inadequacy. The systematic analysis of the theory and practice of international law applied in the paper also allowed to evaluate the instances of legal regulation in foreign countries in order to explain the problems of legal regulation of electronic evidence collection in Lithuania. The conclusion. The current legal framework for the collection of electronic evidence in Lithuania does not fully ensure the possibilities for exercising the rights of individuals.
Internet: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/108533
Appears in Collections:2020 m. (TF mag.)

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