Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/107561
Type of publication: master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law (S001)
Author(s): Urbšytė, Ugnė
Supervisor: Palionienė, Neringa
Title: Ar LR BK įtvirtintos seksualinio priekabiavimo veikos teisinis reguliavimas Lietuvoje neprieštarauja ultima ratio principui?
Other Title: Does the legal regulation of the offence of sexual harassment enshrined in the criminal code of the Republic of Lithuania contradict the principle of ultima ratio?
Extent: 68 p.
Date: 18-Jun-2020
Keywords: Seksualinis priekabiavimas;Sexual harassment;Ultima ratio principas;Ultima ratio principle;Baudžiamoji atsakomybė;Criminal liability;Teisinis reguliavimas;The legal regulation
Abstract: ES pagrindinių teisių agentūros atlikto tyrimo duomenimis apytiksliai apskaičiuota, kad visose ES valstybėse narėse seksualinį priekabiavimą patyrė nuo 83 mln. iki 102 mln. moterų. Europos Sąjungos institucijų teisės aktais ir Europos mastu atliktais tyrimais nuosekliai formuotas suvokimas, jog seksualinis priekabiavimas yra paplitusi nusikalstama veika, kuri pažeidžia pagrindines asmens teises bei laisves, paskatino valstybes nares užimti aktyvią poziciją kovoje su minėtu elgesiu. Nepaisant to, jog seksualinio priekabiavimo veika Lietuvos Respublikos baudžiamajame kodekse kriminalizuota jau seniai, teismų praktika baudžiamosiose seksualinio priekabiavimo bylose yra itin skurdi. Kadangi už seksualinį priekabiavimą yra numatyta ne vien baudžiamoji, tačiau taip pat ir kitų rūšių teisinė atsakomybė, seksualinio priekabiavimo veikoje, be kita ko, kriminalizavus vulgarius ar į vulgarius panašius veiksmus, pasiūlymus ar netgi užuominas, šiame tyrime keltas tikslas atlikti LR BK įtvirtintos seksualinio priekabiavimo veikos teisinio reguliavimo Lietuvoje atitikties ultima ratio principo reikalavimams sisteminę analizę pasitelkiant kiekybinį tyrimą bei pasirinktų užsienio šalių teisinio seksualinio priekabiavimo reguliavimo pavyzdžius. Tyrimo objektas - seksualinio priekabiavimo veikos reglamentavimas Lietuvos baudžiamosios teisės normomis ir jų praktinis taikymas Lietuvos baudžiamojoje teisėje. Išsikeltam tikslui įgyvendinti pasitelkti aprašomasis, lingvistinis, lyginamasis, sisteminės analizės, mokslinės literatūros ir dokumentų turinio analizės metodai, kiekybinis tyrimas – apklausa internetu bei statistinė analizė naudojant "SPSS" statistinių duomenų apdorojimo programą. Remiantis tyrimo metu gautais rezultatais nustatyta, jog hipotezė, kad LR BK įtvirtintos seksualinio priekabiavimo veikos teisinis reguliavimas Lietuvoje neprieštarauja ultima ratio principui, nepasitvirtino. Atsižvelgiant į tyrimo metu gautus rezultatus pasiūlyta Lietuvos Respublikos baudžiamajame kodekse įtvirtintoje seksualinio priekabiavimo sudėtyje numatyti pakartotinumo požymį bei susiaurinti veikos apibrėžimą „vulgarūs ar panašūs veiksmai, pasiūlymai ar užuominos“ performuluojant jį sekančiai: „pakartotini vulgarūs veiksmai ar pasiūlymai“, kartu numatant, jog už itin grubius, nors ir vienkartinius fizinius vulgarius veiksmus, kuriais aukai sukuriama ypač bauginanti, priešiška ar žeminanti aplinka, taip pat taikoma baudžiamoji atsakomybė.
According to a study by the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights, it is estimated that between 45 percent and 55 percent of women in all EU Member States have experienced sexual harassment. Despite the fact that the act of sexual harassment has been criminalized in the Criminal Code of the Republic of Lithuania for a long time, the case law in criminal cases of sexual harassment is extremely poor. As sexual harassment is subject not only to criminal but also to other types of liability, after criminalizing vulgar or vulgar-like actions, suggestions or even hints, there is a need to investigate whether the legal regulation of the offence of sexual harassment enshrined in the criminal code of the Republic of Lithuania contradict the principle of ultima ratio? The aim of this study is to perform a systematic analysis of the compliance of the legal regulation of sexual harassment in Lithuania with the requirements of the ultima ratio principle using quantitative research and examples of legal regulation of sexual harassment in selected foreign countries. The object of the research is the regulation of sexual harassment by the norms of Lithuanian criminal law and their practical application. In order to achieve the intended goal, 5 tasks were set in this Master's Thesis: 1. To highlight the preconditions for the emergence of the regulation of sexual harassment; 2. To reveal the concept of sexual harassment as a legal phenomenon in society; 3. To compare the regulation of sexual harassment and the concept of sexual harassment in different countries; 4. Assess whether sexual harassment is a dangerous act that should be prosecuted; 5. Determine whether the composition of the act of sexual harassment makes it possible to distinguish sexual harassment from non-criminal acts. The following methods were used to achieve the planned tasks: descriptive, linguistic, comparative, systematic analysis, analysis of scientific literature and document content, quantitative research - online survey and statistical analysis using SPSS statistical data processing program. Based on the results obtained during the research, it was established that the legal regulation of the sexual harassment act enshrined in the criminal code of the Republic of Lithuania contradicts the principle of ultima ratio. The results of the study revealed that: 1. The lack of legal protection measures in the fight against sexual harassment led to slower development and difficult integration of women into the labor market as well as stereotypical attitudes harmful to both men and women; 2. Assessing the results of a quantitative study in the context of the criterion of criminalization, which means that the criminal offense must be perceived as criminal by the majority, it should be established that one-off or insufficiently intensive acts should be subject to civil liability; 3. The obvious sexual nature of an act of sexual harassment determines that this criminal offense is classified as an offense of a sexual nature. It has been established that the criminalization of sexual harassment limitation to physical acts of harassment does not provide sufficient and effective protection against other forms of intense sexual harassment; 4. Having established that sexual harassment is a widespread behavior that violates the inherent values protected by EU legislation and the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania, causing both short-term and long-term consequences and manifested in an environment where there is a relationship of dependency, substantially complicating the victim's ability to confront a harasser seeking sexual communication or satisfaction, it must be stated that sexual harassment is a dangerous act, the prevention of which requires the use of criminal law measures; 5. It has been found that the terms 'similar' and 'allusive' in the definition of an act of sexual harassment prevent a genuinely dangerous act from being distinguished from acts which should not fall within the scope of criminal law. The existing legal basis for initiating criminal proceedings solely on the basis of abstract hints or actions, which are not even considered vulgar, creates a situation when the actions of the accused formally appear in the list of actions criminalized in the Criminal code, they are insufficient to judge the accused’s desire for sexual intercourse or satisfaction. Finally, taking into account the results of the investigation, it was proposed to include a feature of recurrence in the composition of sexual harassment enshrined in the Criminal Code of the Republic of Lithuania and to narrow the definition of “vulgar or similar actions, suggestions or hints” to “repeated vulgar actions or suggestions” also provided that extremely gross, albeit one-off, physical vulgar acts which create a particularly intimidating, hostile or degrading environment for the victim are also subject to criminal liability.
Internet: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/107561
Appears in Collections:2020 m. (TF mag.)

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