Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/107273
Type of publication: master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law (S001)
Author(s): Jankevičiūtė, Kornelija
Supervisor: Grigienė, Jurgita
Title: Ar ribojant užsienio subjektų teisę įsigyti žemę Lietuvoje, pažeidžiama asmens teisė įsigyti bei turėti nuosavybę?
Other Title: Does restricting the right of foreign entities to acquire land in Lithuania violate a person's right to acquire and own property?
Extent: 28 p.
Date: 18-Jun-2020
Keywords: Teisė į nuosavybę;Right to property;Lygiateisiškumas;Equality;Žemė;Land
Abstract: Teisė į nuosavybė - viena iš prigimtinių žmogaus teisių. Ši teisė ginama daugybės įstatymų visame pasaulyje nepaisant asmens lyties, rasės, tautybės, kalbos, kilmės, socialinės padėties ar kitokių faktorių. Tačiau, ši teisė nėra absoliuti bei turi išlygų. Darbe aptariamos nuosavybės įgijimo Lietuvoje problemos su kuriomis susiduria išskirtinai užsienio pilietybę turintys asmenys. Užsienio piliečiai norintys įgyvendinti įstatymuose numatytus veiksmus, šiuo atveju paveldėti nuosavybę ar atkurti nuosavybės teisę į išlikusį nekilnojamąjį turtą, turi atitikti tam tikrus kriterijus, išpildyti sąlygas. Paveldėjimo atveju - atitikti sąlygą numatytą Lietuvos Respublikos Konstitucijos 47 straipsnio 3 dalies įgyvendinimo konstitucinio įstatymo 4 straipsnį. Nuosavybės teisių į išlikusį nekilnojamąjį turtą atkūrimo atveju - turėti Lietuvos pilietybę. Lyginant Lietuvos pilietybę turintį asmenį su Lietuvos pilietybės neturinčiu asmeniu, aukščiau išvardinti veiksmai tampa komplikuoti arba iš viso neįmanomi. Todėl kyla klausimas ar ribojant užsienio piliečių teisę nuosavybės teise valdyti žemę Lietuvoje nėra pažeidžiama asmens teisė į nuosavybę? Ar leidimas įgyti nuosavybę tik turint tam tikros šalies pilietybę nėra diskriminacinio pobūdžio bei ar nepažeidžia asmenų lygiateisiškumo bei proporcingumo įstatymo tikslui principo? Šiame magistriniame darbe pateikiama užsienio piliečių teisinės padėties nuosavybės atžvilgiu Lietuvoje raida ir tai kokie faktoriai lėmė, dabartinę esamą padėtį - užsienio piliečiams siekiant įgyti teisę į nuosavybę ar ją išsaugoti bei valdyti tenka atitikti įstatymuose numatytus kriterijus. Darbe siekiama atsakyti į klausimą ar keliami kriterijai yra proporcingi, sąžiningi ar nekelia diskriminacijos turimos pilietybės atžvilgiu ir svarbiausia ar nepažeidžia teisės į nuosavybę.
The right to property is a natural human right. Subjectively, it is understood as the owner's right to manage and use an object at their own discretion but without violating the rights and interests of the law and other persons. This right is protected by many laws around the world regardless of a person’s gender, race, nationality, language, origin, social status and other factors. The legal system of the Republic of Lithuania is not an exception as well. Considerable attention is paid to the protection of this right in the legal acts of the Republic of Lithuania. The Constitution which is the most important legal act of the Republic of Lithuania specifies three rules that must be observed in Article 23: property is inviolable, property rights are protected by law, and property may be taken away only for the needs of society in accordance with the law and fair compensation. However, although the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania and other legal acts protect the right to property, this right is not absolute and has limitations. This master's thesis describes and analyzes the legal position of foreign citizens with regard to the acquisition of property. It analyzes how the mentioned legal situation has changed throughout various historical periods influencing its change and formation. The current problems of acquiring property in the Republic of Lithuania which persons that have foreign citizenship face and the legal regulation of this issue in the Republic of Lithuania and foreign countries are discussed in the work. A lot of attention is paid to the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania and the articles contained therein, such as: the inviolability of property (Article 23 of the Constitution), equality (Article 29 of the Constitution) and the Constitutional Law on the Implementation of Paragraph 3 of Article 47 of the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania. The paper analyzes whether the criteria provided in Article 4 of the Constitutional Law on the Implementation of Paragraph 3 of Article 47 of the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania are not discriminatory with regard to citizenship and whether the right to property is not violated by applying this law and thus restricting the right of foreign entities to acquire land. After narrowing the scope of the analysis, two specific situations that in one way or another restrict or prohibit foreign citizens from the right of ownership to acquire land in Lithuania are presented. Foreign citizens wishing to implement the actions provided by law and in this case inherit property in accordance with Article 5.75 of the Civil Code of the Republic of Lithuania (hereinafter - the CC of the Republic of Lithuania) which provides a reference to the aforementioned constitutional law implementing Article 47 (3). It specifies the criteria that a person wishing to own land in Lithuania must meet and fulfil. The paper analyzes whether the right of a foreign citizen to acquire property after becoming an heir and accepting a will in accordance with Article 5.75 of the CC of the Republic of Lithuania is not violated. Does the imperative norm of the law that does not allow foreign citizens not conforming with the conditions provided in the Constitution for the right of ownership to manage, dispose of or use land in Lithuania exceed the limits of the principle of proportionality? The second problematic situation described in the master’s thesis is the following: persons seeking to restore ownership of the remaining real estate must meet certain criteria and conditions. Regarding restoration of property rights to the remaining real estate, one of the main criterion for implementing the objectives provided by law is the citizenship of the Republic of Lithuania. In case of comparing a person with Lithuanian citizenship with a person without Lithuanian citizenship, the actions described above become complicated or even impossible. Therefore, the question is whether restricting the right of foreign citizens to own land in Lithuania violates a person's right to property. Is the acquisition to acquire property solely on the basis of the nationality of a particular country not discriminatory and does it not infringe the principles of equality of persons and proportionality to the purpose of the law? After analyzing the solution to the presented situations regulating the legal acts of the Republic of Lithuania (inheriting property or restoring the ownership right to the remaining real estate), case law and comparing Lithuanian regulation with foreign regulation and case law on the same issues, this master's thesis will seek to answer the question whether the criteria for foreign entities seeking to acquire and manage the right of ownership of land in the Republic of Lithuania are proportionate, fair or do not discriminate with regard to their citizenship and, most importantly, do not violate the right to property.
Internet: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/107273
Appears in Collections:2020 m. (TF mag.)

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