Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/107257
Type of publication: master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law (S001)
Author(s): Urbonaitė, Karolina
Supervisor: Palionienė, Neringa
Title: Ar Lietuvoje galima baudžiamoji atsakomybė už prekybą žmogaus lytinėmis ląstelėmis?
Other Title: Is there a criminal liability in Lithuania for trafficking in human gametes?
Extent: 47 p.
Date: 18-Jun-2020
Keywords: Lytinės ląstelės;Gametes;Žmogaus kūno komercializavimas;Commercialization of the human body;Prekyba žmonėmis;Human trafficking
Abstract: Dėl įtvirtintos nuostatos, jog žmogaus kūnas, jo dalys, negali būti finansinės naudos šaltiniu, skatinama griežtai reglamentuoti organų, audinių bei ląstelių donorystę, draudžiama skelbti apie jų poreikį arba prieinamumą, siekiant finansinės arba panašios naudos. Nepaisant to, viešą nuomonę formuojančiose informacijos sklaidos priemonėse vis dažniau viešinami skelbimai siūlantys įsigyti žmogaus lytinių ląstelių. Tuo tarpu teisėkūros procesas atsilieka palikdamas nesureguliuotas spragas. Nesutariama, ar yra poreikis LR BK papildyti naujais straipsniais. Nurodoma, jog prekyba lytinėmis ląstelėmis kaip nusikalstama veika jau minima kituose baudžiamojo kodekso straipsniuose, taip pat neatmetama galimybė, jog minėta veika galėtų būti reguliuojama ir administracinės teisės normomis, todėl kyla pagrįstos abejonės, ar prekyba žmogaus lytinėmis ląstelėmis turėtų būti reguliuojama administracinės ar baudžiamosios teisės normomis, ar prekyba žmogaus lytinėmis ląstelėmis patenka į nusikaltimų žmogaus sveikatai ir gyvybei bei prekybos žmonėmis sudėtis. Šio darbo tikslas yra ištirti, ar Lietuvoje numatyta baudžiamoji atsakomybė už prekybą žmogaus lytinėmis ląstelėmis. Siekiant minėto tikslo, buvo naudojami lingvistinės, sisteminės, dokumentų analizės bei lyginamasis, aprašomasis ir apibendrinimo metodai. Atliekant tyrimą apibrėžta lytinių ląstelių sąvoka, atskleista žmogaus kūno nekomercializavimo principo samprata bei nustatyti prekybos lytinėmis ląstelėmis, kaip nusikalstamos veikos sudėties požymiai. Taip pat nustatyta, jog dauguma valstybių už prekybą lytinėmis ląstelėmis taiko baudžiamąją atsakomybę. Tuo tarpu, išanalizavus LR BK įtvirtintas normas, nustatyta, jog prekyba lytinėmis ląstelėmis neatitinka visų prekybos žmonėmis bei nusikaltimų žmogaus sveikatai bei gyvybei sudėties požymių ir asmeniui, kuris savanoriškai, laisva valia, kaip daiktą, parduoda savo lytines ląsteles, siekdamas tokiu būdu praturtėti, baudžiamosios atsakomybės taikyti nėra galimybės. Įvertinus teisinius gėrius, veikos pavojingą pobūdį, jos keliamą žalą, kurios išvengti administracinė atsakomybė nėra pakankamai atgrasanti priemonė, nustatyta, jog prekyba lytinėmis ląstelėmis kaip nusikalstama veika atitinka ultima ratio keliamus reikalavimus. Atsižvelgiant į tai, taip pat į teisės mokslininkų nuomones bei kitose ES valstybėse taikomas priemones, siūloma už prekybą žmogaus lytinėmis ląstelėmis Lietuvoje taikyti baudžiamąją atsakomybę.
The provision that the human body, its parts, can not be a source of financial benefit was established in the Convention by Council of Europe in 1997. It is encouraged to intensify and strengthen alternatives for the prevention and treatment of infertility and to strictly regulate the donation of ova, as well as all organs, tissues and cells. It is also prohibited to publish the need for human tissues, cells, organs or availability of it for financial or any similar gain. Nevertheless, with the rapid development of medical science and the successful application of assisted reproduction technologies, which offer an increasing number of infertility treatment solutions, advertisements offering the purchase of human gametes and natural fertilization services are increasingly advertised in media. Meanwhile, the legislative process is falling behind and leaving unresolved gaps. There is a disagreement as to whether there is a need to add new articles to the Criminal Code of the Republic of Lithuania. It is noted that trafficking in gametes as a criminal offense is already mentioned in other articles of the Criminal Code, but possibility that such trafficking could be regulated by administrative law is also not excluded. Therefore, the legal regulation in this area remains unclear and there are reasonable doubts whether trafficking in human gametes should be regulated by administrative or criminal law, whether trafficking in human gametes falls within the scope of crimes against human health and life and trafficking in human beings. The aim of this study is to investigate is there a criminal liability for trafficking in human gametes in Lithuania, after determining the characteristics of trafficking in human gametes and analyzing the characteristics of trafficking in human beings and crimes against human health and life. The subject of the research is regulation of trafficking in human gametes nationally and internationally. The research raises a hypothesis that there is no criminal liability for trafficking in human gametes in Lithuania. In order to achieve the aim of this study, linguistic, systematic, document analysis and comparative, descriptive and generalization methods were used. This master's thesis first defines the concept of gametes. The concept of the principle of non-commercialization of the human body is also revealed, presenting different scientific opinions on whether apply criminal or administrative liability for trafficking in human gametes in order to protect human dignity and the integrity of his body, to prevent commercialization of human body. Based on the opinions of scientists, the trafficking in human gametes, as a criminal offense, has been identified and it has been concluded that trafficking in human gametes encroaches on human dignity and health or even life. A dangerous act is the sale, acquisition of gametes or act as a go-between in the course of these acts, when money is paid or received, or when other non-monetary benefits are provided or received. It has been found that, despite the existence of countries where the responsibility for the trafficking in human gametes is regulated by administrative law (Spain, Finland), in the vast majority of countries (Poland, Germany, France, the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Kingdom of Sweden, Canada) there is a criminal liability for trafficking in human gametes. Most foreign researchers also believe that this form of liability is needed. Although the sale or acquisition of human gametes does not necessarily encroach on human liberty, exploit or disrupt human health in all cases, the lack of control over such trafficking may lead to an increase in these crimes in the future. In this way society is taking the view that the human body can be an object and parts of the human body can be turned into a commodity and administrative liability is not enough sufficient to prevent this. It has been found that trafficking in human gametes did not meet the criteria for trafficking in human beings and crimes against human health and life and that it is not possible to prosecute a person who voluntarily sells his gametes as an object in order to get financial gain. In the first case, there is different subject between trafficking in human beings and trafficking in human gametes, even in the presence of certain compositional features. In one case it is the person himself, in another it is the gametes. In the second case, norms of crimes against human health and life do not cover cases where human gametes are simply purchased, sold or acting go-between in the course of doing so and does not involve any physical effect. In the light of the legal merits, the dangerous nature of the conduct, the risk of damage, the damage that has been already caused, which administrative liability is not sufficient to prevent, it has been established that the trade in gametes as a criminal offense meets the requirements of the ultima ratio principle. Taking into account the opinions of legal scholars, threats of action and measures applied in other EU countries, it is proposed to establish criminal liability for trafficking in human gametes in Lithuania.
Internet: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/107257
Appears in Collections:2020 m. (TF mag.)

Files in This Item:
Show full item record
Export via OAI-PMH Interface in XML Formats
Export to Other Non-XML Formats


CORE Recommender

Google ScholarTM

Check


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.