Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/107249
Type of publication: master thesis
Field of Science: Teisė / Law (S001)
Author(s): Galeckaitė, Andželika
Supervisor: Giedraitis, Algirdas
Title: Ar tinkamai užtikrinamos nepilnamečių specialiosios procesinės garantijos baudžiamajame procese?
Other Title: Are special procedural guarantees for juveniles adequately ensured in criminal proceedings?
Extent: 52 p.
Date: 19-Jun-2020
Keywords: Nepilnamečiai;Juveniles;Baudžiamasis procesas;Criminal proceeding;Baudžiamoji atsakomybė;Criminal responsibility
Abstract: Nepilnamečiai asmenys yra labiausiai pažeidžiami visuomenės nariai. Baudžiamasis procesas, neatsižvelgiant į nepilnamečio asmens procesinį statusą sukelia įvairių neigiamų padarinių, taip pat turi įtakos tolimesniam jų gyvenimui. Norint apsaugoti nepilnamečius nuo neigiamo baudžiamojo proceso poveikio yra labai svarbu garantuoti jų procesines teises ir interesus. Vienas pagrindinių baudžiamojo proceso tiklsų yra žmogaus ir piliečio teisių apsauga, būtent specialiosios procesinės garantijos padeda šį tikslą įgyvendinti. Kad būtų tinkamai užtikrinamos nepilnamečių specialiosios procesinės garantijos baudžiamajame procese, būtina suvokti šiuo metu galiojančiuose teisės aktuose apibrėžtus procesinius veiksmus ir jų poveikį baudžiamajame procese dalyvaujantiems asmenims. Esminės sritys kuriose itin svarbu tinkamai užtikrinti procesines garantijas yra apklausų sistema, teisės normų apibrėžtumas ir procese dalyvaujančių asmenų statuso aiškumas. Garantuojant specialiąsias procesines garantijas nepilnamečiams būtina įtvirtinti aiškias teisės normas, bei tokius procesinius veiksmus, kurie užtikrintų nepilnamečių apsaugą ir interesus. Todėl šio tiriamojo darbo objektas yra nepilnamečių procesinių garantijų užtikrinimas. Kad būtų atsakytą į darbe iškeltą klausimą, jame buvo analizuojami nacionaliniai ir tarptautiniai teisės aktai, reglamentuojantys nepilnamečių baudžiamojo proceso ypatumus, taip pat teismų praktika ir mokslinė literatūra. Išanalizavus temos problematiką, pasitvirtino darbo pradžioje iškelta hipotezė, jog šiuo metu Baudžiamojo proceso kodekse numatytos teisės normos padeda tinkamai užtikrinti nepilnamečių speciąliasis procesines garantijas, nepaisant to, kad jas taikant pasitaiko praktinių problemų. Darbe nustatyta, kad įstatymų leidėjas naujausiais baudžiamojo proceso kodekso pakeitimais, sustiprino nepilnamečių įtariamųjų ir kaltinamųjų procesinę padėtį užtikrinančias specialiąsias procesines garantijas, taip pat įtvirtinto psichologo kaip specialisto statusą. Nepilnamečių liudytojų ir nukentėjusiųjų procesinės garantijos apklausų metu ir vykdant kitus procesinius veiksmus yra užtikrinamos tinkamais. Ypatingas dėmesys yra skiriamas siekiant išvengti neigiamo baudžiamojo proceso poveikio nepilnamečiams, atskiromis darbe analizuotomis teisės normomis siekiama tinkamai užtikrinti specialiasis procesines garantijas baudžiamajame procese. Apibendrinant darytina išvada, kad šis darbas yra aktualus, pateikiamos išvados įrodo, kad su LR Baudžiamojo proceso kodekso pakeitimais nepilnamečių procesinių garantijų užtikrinamas yra tinkamas, didesnis dėmesys skiriamas jų interesams ir baudžiamajame procese dalyvaujančių asmenų statusui apibrėžti, efektyviau siekiama sumažinti neigiamą poveikį nepilnamečiui baudžiamojo proceso metu.
It is widely acknowledged that children are among the most vulnerable parts of the society. Special attention has always been paid to juvenile criminal justice. Constantly updated national and international legislation are aimed to define the actions of criminal proceedings as clearly as possible, to protect juveniles from negative effects of criminal proceedings and to defend their rights and interests. Special procedural guarantees are one of the tools to help do this. In order to ensure the special procedural guarantees of juveniles in criminal proceedings properly, it is necessary to understand the procedural actions defined in the applicable legal acts and their impact on the persons involved in the criminal proceedings. The most important problems in order to ensure procedural guarantees properly are the system of interviews, the clarity of legal norms and the clarity of the status of persons involved in the proceedings. When ensuring special procedural guarantees for juveniles, it is necessary to establish clear legal norms that would ensure the defence of juveniles and interests. Therefore, the object of this research work is to ensure procedural guarantees for juveniles. In order to answer the question raised in the Thesis, it includes the analysis of national and international legal acts regulating the peculiarities of juvenile criminal justice, as well as case law and scientific literature. After the analysis of the topic problems, the hypothesis raised at the beginning of the Thesis, that currently the legal norms provided for in the Code of Criminal Procedure help to ensure special procedural guarantees for juveniles properly, has been confirmed, although there are practical problems. Tasks of the research: 1.To define the concept of a minor age child and the allowances for criminal liability 2.To analyse what norms specified in legal acts are intended to ensure special procedural guarantees for juveniles in criminal proceedings 3.To examine the interview system that applies to juveniles in criminal proceedings 4.To determine the definition of functions and status of the persons involved in the proceedings Research methods: In order to find out whether special procedural guarantees for juveniles are properly ensured in accordance with the laws of criminal procedure applicable in the Republic of Lithuania, the following theoretical and empirical methods will be used: 1.Descriptive method that will provide the information needed to answer the question raised in the Thesis. 2.Analytical method that will be used to analyse all the sources that will be relied on in the Thesis. 3.Comparative method. Using this method, the established practice of juvenile criminal justice in Lithuanian and foreign courts will be compared. 4.Method of logical analysis. Using this method we will identify the assumptions on which the conclusions are based. 5.Linguistic method that will be used to clarify the currently used concept of a juvenile. The first chapter deals with the concept of a juvenile in criminal proceedings. According to the analysis of international and national legal acts, one of the main criteria for applying the peculiarities of legal regulation to a person is the age limit - for those under 18 years of age. However, in accordance with international and European Union law, it is important to pay attention not only to age but also to social maturity. It can therefore be concluded that age and social criteria are two determining factors in defining the concept of a juvenile. The second chapter includes the analysis of the significance of special procedural guarantees in criminal proceedings and how they distinguish themselves through the functions and legal norms of the persons involved in the proceedings. It has been established that several procedural guarantees are established in the Criminal Code of the Republic of Lithuania as the powers of a prosecutor, and the protection of personal data is used. It has also been established that juveniles are not able to participate effectively in criminal proceedings due to their age and lack of social maturity, to defend their rights and interests, therefore special guarantees in criminal proceedings are applied to help juveniles feel full participants of the proceedings. The third chapter seeks to examine the system of interviews with juveniles in criminal cases. The investigation disclosed that the system of interviewing juveniles is properly regulated during pre-trial investigation and during court proceedings. During interviews one pays special attention to psychological condition of a child and the possible influence of other participants in the criminal proceedings. Representatives and professionals involved in these proceedings help to ensure the rights of juveniles in criminal proceedings effectively. The assistance of psychologists in interviewing a child, as well as the practice of adaptation of premises for children, allows for proper interviewing of a child, helps to obtain objective data on the criminal offense and thus ensures the minimum negative impact of criminal proceedings on a child. The fourth chapter seeks to determine the definition of functions and status of the persons involved in the proceedings, as well as the clarity of legal norms. Examination of the applicable norms of criminal procedure leads to the conclusion that the functions and status of the persons involved in the proceedings, such as a psychologist and a representative of the child`s rights protection institution, are well regulated. It should be mentioned that this clear regulation came with the new amendments to the Code of Criminal Procedure. Uncertainties can be found in the assessment of the criminal procedure norms, but this only poses a problem in practice. Practice shows that the state tries to ensure the rights of juveniles adequately. Therefore, attempts are made to minimize violations of the rights of juveniles during participation in criminal proceedings. The Thesis establishes that the legislator has properly defined the concept of a juvenile, despite the procedural status of the juvenile in criminal proceedings, the interview system during pre-trial investigation and court proceedings is properly regulated; efforts are taken to define the functions of persons involved in the proceedings better. Special attention is paid to avoid the negative impact of criminal proceedings on juveniles; separate norms are aimed to ensure special procedural guarantees in criminal proceedings adequately. Summarizing all mentioned afore it may be concluded that this Thesis is urgent. The presented conclusions prove that the amendments to the Code of Criminal Procedure of the Republic of Lithuania improved procedural guarantees of juveniles; special attention is paid to interests of juveniles and determination of status of the persons involved in criminal proceedings; it is aimed to reduce the negative impact on the juvenile during criminal proceedings more effectively.
Internet: https://hdl.handle.net/20.500.12259/107249
Appears in Collections:2020 m. (TF mag.)

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