Kultūra ir visuomenė: socialinių tyrimų žurnalas 2010, nr. 1 (2)

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  • Publication
    Paradigms of migration: from integration to transnationalism
    [Migracijos paradigmos: nuo integracijos iki transnacionalizmo]
    research article
    Giordano, Christian
    Kultūra ir visuomenė: socialinių tyrimų žurnalas, 2010, nr. 1(2), p. 11-27
    This article provides a critical analysis from the viewpoint of social anthropology of the different theoretic approaches that also set the tone of current debates on immigration in Europe and elsewhere. We begin by retracing the models developed and popularized since the 1960s to discuss the integration theory and Marxist reflections on the rise of class consciousness in immigrants. The article illustrates the paradigm shift that occurred in the 1990s that takes into account the role of the immigrants’ culture in their society of origin, whereby immigrants appear to act in conformity with two cultural systems of reference, i.e., of their society of origin and of the society of residence. This theoretical model highlights the transnational aspect of migration phenomena. In this article, we analyze the social organization of transnationalism starting from two fundamental types of aggregation: diasporas and social networks. The centuries-old Chinese immigration in Malaysia provides evidence that diaspora and social networks are not opposite forms of social organization, but rather coexisting and interacting ones. By means of an historical perspective, we will show that the social networks of the Chinese in Malaysia gradually became a national diaspora in which not only economically but also politically powerful clan-like social networks are still in action.
      49  25
  • Publication
    Tarpasmeninių ryšių tinklo formavimasis ir jo reikšmė migracijoje
    [Formation of interpersonal networks and their role in migration]
    research article;
    Rosinaitė, Vikinta
    Kultūra ir visuomenė : socialinių tyrimų žurnalas = Culture and society : journal of social research. Kaunas : Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto leidykla, 2010, nr. 1(2), p. 29-46
    This article focuses on the analysis of job-searching strategies based on the results of the interpersonal migration networks research. The analysis deals with the issue of migrants’ job-searching strategies based on different types of social ties. The attention is also paid to the analysis of the exchange of diverse resources in these networks (including the analysis of information, support, friendship, communication and kinship ties). The article not only examines the structural characteristics of migration networks but also analyzes the subjective experiences and reflections of migrants in the integration process in a foreign country’s labor market. The main analytical argument refers to Granovetter’s typology of weak and strong ties in professional mobility, including jobsearching processes (Granovetter 1973). Weak social ties are characterized by a high dispersion of information flows advantageous to migrants’ integration into the labor market. Networks of weak ties also provide the financial resources, personal contacts or emotional support in settlement, housing or job searching in migration country. We illustrate the theoretical insights by the empirical data from a qualitative migration network case study of Lithuanian migrants conducted in March of 2010 in Copenhagen (Denmark). The general bulk of the data comes from the in-depth interviews with 20 respondents with different socio-demographic characteristics including gender, education, age, professional experience and family status. The empirical analysis focuses on the following issues: What kinds of job-searching strategies are advantageous in migration? How these strategies are related to weak and strong ties used by migrants? Who provides migrants with mutual assistance, basic information and other resources? To summarize the empirical data, the meaning of interpersonal migration networks is ambiguous in terms of its functions and significance for migrants’ adaptation.[...].
      263  122
  • Publication
    Lietuvos gyventojų buitinių atliekų problemos suvokimas ir rūpesčio aplinkosauga tipologija
    [Lithuanian population's attitudes towards the issue of garbage disposal and a typology of environmental concerns]
    research article
    Kultūra ir visuomenė : socialinių tyrimų žurnalas = Culture and society : journal of social research. Kaunas : Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto leidykla, 2010, nr. 1(2), p. 47-65
    The paper discusses the empirical data obtained from the survey on garbage in Alytus region. Scholarly literature distinguishes three types of concerns about garbage in the industrial society: 1) a concern about pollution; 2) a concern about the waste of energy and resources; and 3) a concern about the decrease of garbage (Schindler 1998). In this paper, we attempt to demonstrate that the first type of the environmental concern is characteristic of the majority of the population of Alytus, similarly as in a previous survey in Kaunas and Šiauliai in 2001. We argue that this type of concern reflects an early development of the industrial society and special environmental preoccupations in Lithuania in general. The population’s concern about garbage is also related to people’s behavior and attitudes. Only a small part of the population (3 %) perceives the issue of garbage as the problem of the waste of energy and resources. The data support the assumption that the population of Alytus region still has a strong need for materialistic and physical security. This need marginalizes the values of ecological concern.
      142  73
  • Publication
    Pilietiškumo konstravimas globalumo kontekste : NVO vaidmens kaita Lietuvoje
    [Construction of citizenship in a global context : the change of NGOs' role in Lithuania]
    research article
    Kultūra ir visuomenė : socialinių tyrimų žurnalas = Culture and society : journal of social research. Kaunas : Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto leidykla, 2010, nr. 1(2), p. 67- 83
    The structure of society, including the sphere of politics, has been changing and shifting during the last several decades. New forms of civic participation have emerged as an alternative to the rule of state government. Civic society becomes a very important component in society. Therefore, it is necessary to analyze shifting social realities and its impact on power relations. This study examines practices of the Lithuanian youth NGOs in a global context. Ten members from different youth NGO’s were interviewed for the study. The interviews were conducted with those members of NGOs who had participated in international networks and had had international connections. The sample of respondents was made using the snowball strategy. The analysis demonstrates that the globalization process depends on different social, economical and political patterns of a single country. Globalization changes the inner quality of the social and political life itself and loosens up the relation of a society to politics. This process, in its turn, provides citizens with more opportunities to participate in the governing of a state. The research results also show that the main function of NGOs is political and/ or civil socialization. Informal education is one of the methods that can motivate and encourage the youth to participate in civic activities. Members of the youth NGOs can become agents in social change and can have a possibility to influence the change not only at the local, regional or national but also at the international level.
      77  66
  • Publication
    Moderniosios religijos formavimosi prielaidos, raiška ir ypatumai
    [Premises for the emergence, manifestation and peculiarities of modern religion]
    research article
    Kultūra ir visuomenė : socialinių tyrimų žurnalas = Culture and society : journal of social research. Kaunas : Vytauto Didžiojo universiteto leidykla, 2010, nr. 1(2), p. 85-99
    The article discusses the premises for the emergence of modern religion, its manifestation and peculiarities. The analysis of the ideas of the classics of sociology of religion such as Robert Bellah and Thomas Luckmann and contemporary sociologists Grace Davie, Cose Casanova, Steve Bruce, Zygmunt Bauman, Paul Heelas and Ronald Inglehart leads author to conclude that the premises for the emergence of modern religion are structural, value-related and ideological. The main differences between traditional and modern religion can be found in the social contexts. Modern religion is an individually constructed social phenomenon existing in the social context where public religions are important actors. Analyzing the scholars’ works on relation, the author constructs a scheme of ideal types of traditional and modern religion, compares them and draws guidelines for the study of contemporary religious phenomena.
      48  69