Istorija 2004, t. 62

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  • Publication
    Mano studijos pedagoginiame institute
    [My studies at Vilnius State Pedagogical Institute]
    research article
    Gaigalaitė, Aldona
    Istorija, 2004, t. 62 p. 3-25
    The author, on the basis of documents, literature and her own experience, aims to show the policy of russification and sovietisation after the second Soviet occupation. The data mainly refer to the Faculty of History at Vilnius State Pedagogical Institute. The institute lecturers, who worked in this faculty in the period of independent Lithuania, either emigrated from Lithuania or were not allowed to work at the institute. Thus, at first the teaching staff consisted mainly of secondary school history teachers, graduates from Kaunas Magnus University. In the course of a few years they were eliminated from the faculty on the initiative of the leaders of certain Soviet educational institutions or the communist party. All in all, till the death of Stalin, 25 lecturers were unfairly dismissed from their positions. Officially they were accused of collaborating with the resistance movement or adherence to the nationalistic bourgeois philosophy. Thus, they were considered unreliable as lecturers. From the first days of the Soviet occupation, history lecturers and other specialists were replaced by people who came from Russia or other Soviet republics. Many Russians, Ukrainians, Armenians became heads of the departments of Marxist disciplines, history lecturers or secretaries of the communist party. They introduced Stalinist methods of administration and regime based on fear and distrust.
      66  12
  • Publication
    Žemaitiškės 2-oji polinė gyvenvietė
    [Žemaitiskė 2 pole dwelling site]
    research article
    Girininkas, Algirdas
    Istorija, 2004, t. 62 p. 26-32
    The article deals with Žemaitiskė 2 dwelling site which dated to the late Neolithic and belongs to the pole dwelling sites found in Lithuania. Wooden buildings were temporary. This settlement was built on the platform supported by poles, the diameter of which is 6/8–14/16 centimetres. Next to this settlement fishing equipment was found – wooden enclosures with fishing-baskets. Dendrological researches allow to estimate that buildings on poles were constructed either in spring or at the beginning of summer mostly from ash-tree wood. Radiological investigations of wood confirm the overlapping of certain constructions. It should be also mentioned that this dwelling site on poles and other archaeological findings were left by the inhabitants of Narva culture – fishermen and hunters.
      27  20
  • Publication
    Lietuviai studentai Karaliaučiaus universitete XVI a.–XIX a. pradžioje
    [Lithuanian students of Königsberg University from the 16th till the beginning of the 19th century]
    research article
    Matulevičius, Algirdas
    Istorija, 2004, t. 62 p. 33-42
    The author of the article investigates the national identity, background and descent of the students of Königsberg University (Albertina; 1544–1944) who studied there from its foundation until the 19th century. The study aims to define the number of students who came from the most protestant part of Prussia – Lithuania Minor (regions of Klaipėda and Königsberg) and from the Catholic Grand Duchy of Lithuania where the Reformation movement induced some part of the nobility to become protestants, i.e. evangelical Lutherans or reformists. In the years 1544–1800, about three hundred young people from Lithuania Minor and more than 640 from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the majority of them of Lithuanian origin, studied at this university. The research allows to claim that in the period of 1544–1900 the overall number of the students could be estimated as no less than 1040. The majority of graduates from this university of Lithuania Minor became priests, advocates, and supporters of the Lithuanian written language and culture as well as eminent social figures who worked for the sake of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.
      28  13
  • research article
    Istorija : Lietuvos aukštųjų mokyklų mokslo darbai. , [T.] 62 (2004), p. 43-47
    For a long time, Lithuanian historians have been trying to locate the remains of the Grand Duke of Lithuania, Vytautas. The information about the remains ends in the middle of the 17th century with the publication of Long time memory...
      28  47
  • Publication
    Vilniaus vyskupo klausimas 1917–1918 metais
    [On the issue of Vilnius bishop (1917–1918)]
    research article
    Pukienė, Vida
    Istorija, 2004, t. 62 p. 48-56
    The article deals with a question of Lithuanian bishop in Vilnius diocese in 1917–1918. One of the candidates was canon K. Olšauskas who was supported by M. Ercberger, a representative of Germany’s Catholic centre. When Poland was declared an independent state, it started the policy of restoring the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. The idea was supported by the administrator of Vilnius diocese prelate K. Michalkevičius. This aroused great dissatisfaction among Lithuanians, even demands to resign. In June 1918, the Germans dismissed Michalkevičius from the administrator’s position in Vilnius diocese thus trying to support Olšauskas. However, this step did not render expected results because Olšauskas’ nationalism was not acceptable to Poles who had strong positions and influence in Rome. After Germany’s defeat Olšauskas lost his political backing and, at the same time, the above mentioned position. Most of the inhabitants in Vilnius and its regions were of Polish descent, their native language was Polish, thus the Church could not be Lithuanised by force; time, patience and diplomacy were necessary for certain changes to take place. Thus only in October of 1918 J. Matulevičius-Matulaitis, a person who was acceptable both to Poles and Lithuanians, was appointed bishop of Vilnius.
      14  11